1 ;,. i bycompton MACKENZIEi _CHRISTOPHER STONE one dhieili~ JAN. 1936

2 COVER I The URAMOPI1O.\rE January 1936 THESE FOR YOU THE -GRAMOPHONE..v.,54L,r:.-. o labían,g p.= LIBRARY OPERATIC TRANSLATIONS. By H. F. V. Little. Two Vols., Is. each (postage 2d.). THOUGHTS ON MUSIC. Compiled by Hervey Elwes. One Vol., Is. (postage 3d.). GRAMOPHONES, ACOUSTIC AND RADIO. Compiled by G. Wilson. One Vol., 6d. (postage d.). I The four volumes will be sent post free on receipt of postal order for 3s. 6d. THE WILSON PROTRACTOR (for Testing Needle - Track Alignment). Is. (postage 2d.). THE STROBOSCOPIC SPEED INDICATOR (for Testing Motors). Is. post free. COTTON CORD (for Record Cleaning). 6d. post free. SELF -BINDER (holds 12 Issues and Index). Ss. 6d. post free. SPRING -BACK BINDING CASES (for Presfrving Current Numbers). 3s. 6d. (postage 6d.). COLOURED PORTRAITS OF MOZART, WAGNER, BEETHOVEN. Is. 6d. the three, post free. SACK NUMBERS (if in stock). Is. 2d. each, post free. INDEX TO VOLUMES II, III, V, IX, X, XI and XII. 2s. 6d. each, post free. All cheques, money orders, and postal orders should be In favour of "Gramophone (Publications) Ltd." and should be crossed "Martins. Ltd." The Annual Subscription for THE GRAMOPHONE Is 14s. post free from the London Office. U.S.A. Annual Subscription, $3.50 post free. Cheques on local banks to "Gramophone (Publications) Ltd." Entered as Second Class Matter, March 15th, 1929, at the Rost Office at Boston, Mass., under the Act of March 3, 1879, (Sec. 397, P.L. and R.) THE GRAMOPHONE IOA SOHO SQUARE LONDON W.I Telephone: GERRARD Telegrams: PARMAXTO, RATH, LONDON PAGE CONTENTS a 1 JANUARY EDITORIAL Compton Mackenzie 315 ELISABETH RETHBERG Thomas O'Brien 316 BOOK REVIEWS 317 BEETHOVEN'S STRING QUARTET IN E FLAT Cyril M. Crabtree 319 SCHOOL GRAMOPHONE_ NOTES W. LW. Johnson 320 ROUND AND ABOUT WITH W. R. A. 321 THE FUTURE OF SCREEN OPERA W. John Elton 322 CASELLA'S SICILIANA E BURLESCA (1917) Terpander 323 SECOND REVIEWS 325 ANALYTICAL NOTES AND,FIRST-REVIEWS 333 MISCELLANEOUS REVIEWS M. E. C. 336 DANCE RECORDS M. E. C. 337 SWING MUSIC Edgar Jackson 341 MORE PROGRAMME_ BUILDING 342 TECHNICAL TALK P. Wilson 343 TECHNICAL REFORTS 346 TRADE WINDS AND IDLE ZEPHYRS 347 BEETHOVEN-THE MAN Aural Gray 349 VIBRATO v. TREMOLO 350 TURN TABLE TALK 351 COLLECTORS' CORNER P. G. Hurst 353 CORRESPONDENCE and GRAMOPHONE SOCIETY REPORTS All communications should be addressed to the London Office, IOa Soho Square, London, W.I In the case of MSS. or letters requiring an answer, a stamped envelope must be enclosed All cheques, money orders, and postal orders should be In favour of " Gramophone (Publications) Ltd." and should be crossed " Martins, Ltd." The Annual Subscription for THE GRAMOPHONE is 14s. post free from the London Office. U.S.A. Annual Subscription, $3.50 post free. Cheques on local banks to " Gramophone (Publications) Ltd." Entered as Secor.d Class Matter, March 15th, 1929, at the Post Office at Boston, Mass., under the Act of March 3, (Sec. 397, P.L. end R.)

3 January 1936 The ORAIMOPI/O \'E t 4 n The connoisseur, whatever his purse, can buy no better acoustic gramophone than one made by " His Master's Voice." Every model is as perfect an example of its type as past experience and present knowledge can make it-not only in its audibly superior tone, but also in its detail refinements of design and construction. Ask your dealer to let you hear the latest " His Master's Voice" Acoustic Gramophones. -, ' HIS MASTE R'S VOICE ' TABLE GRAND In acoustically matched oak cabinet, with double spring motor for playing both sides of a 12" record at one winding. 12" turntable automatic record brake. Large diameter tone arm with No. sa sound box. Model tso or by hire purchase - '=r,-. -_ -_;_ It r 1.4. "HIS MASTER'S VOICE" LOWBOY GRAMOPHONE (on right) Figured walnut cabinet with recess for storage of record albums. Excellent reproduction is assured because matched impedance has been incorporated in the design of sound box, tone arm, and tone chamber. Two record motor, Automatic record brake. MODEL GNS or by hire purchase. y } 1 f 'HIS MASTER'S VOICE" CONSOLE GRAMOPHONE (on left) Conforms to the most cultured tastes both in appearance and performance. The cabinet is beautifully finished in walnut with ebonised relief, record storage being provided beside the turntable. The tone chamber is of the double exponential type, all impedances being matched throughout. Two record motor, and every refinement. Model GNS or by hire purchase 5.0 r.y MODEL 102 PORTABLE The finest ever made. No. sa Sound Box, exceptionally long interior horn, special tray for carrying twelve to' records etc. In black V waterproof cloth - 7. In red, green or blue 6. o. o or by hire purchase. -\ -. r MODEL 97 PORTABLE "Small brother" to Model toe. Entirely self-contained, with detachable :ecordcarrying tray etc.: In O J black waterproof cloth or by hire purchase. o YOU PAY NO. EXTRA.FOR : ",HIS ".MASTER'S:..VOICE-".w EXPERIENCE.. His Master's Voice," 98 -tog, Clerkenwel.I Road, London, E.C.t..1

4 1 >Q The GRAMOP//ONE January 1936 To enjoy the best on radio as well as records you cannot buy better than one of the 1936 "His Master's Voice" Radiograms. You get -true " H.M.V. tone ", " H.M.V." performance, and " H.M.V." cabinet-and whatever you pay, you pay no extra for " His Master's Voice " experience. Z- -""'""011 o r A l,l "HIS MASTER'S VOICE" ' POPULAR ' RADIOGRAM Model 370. (above) 4 -valve AC mains receiver with moving coil speaker and spot light tuning; electrical gramophone. Enclosed in handsome walnut cabinet of modern design. 16 GNS or by hire purchase at the rate of 51- a week and a small deposit. "HIS MASTER'S VOICE" SUPERHET RADIOGRAM' (rigid) Model 54t. 5 -valve AC mains super - het receiver, with QAVC for counteracting fading of distant stations, and electrical gramophone. 71 e Model 541 r 22GNS or 24 monthly payments of 1. t. o and z deposit. "HIS MASTER'S VOICE" AUTORADIOGRAM Model 570. superhet (right) 5 -valve (inc. rect.) AC with " fluid -light " tuning, A.V.C. interference suppressor, automatic record changer and newest type electric gramophone. 33 GNS or 18 monthly payments of 1. tb. O. and 5 deposit. `PAY -.-;NCY4, EXTRA,., FOR " HIS "His Master's Voice," 98-to8, Clerkenwell Road, London, E.G.:. 'HIS MASTER'S VOICE" DUO DIFFUSION AUTORADIOGRAM (rich!) Model valve (inc. rect.) AC superhet with "fluid -light" noiseless tuning, static suppressor. Quick - change automatic record -changer. 52 GNS or by hire purchase. MASTER'S-:"VOICE";,: XPERIENCE

5 THE GRAMOPHONE Incorporating VOX, THE RADIO CRITIC and BROADCAST REVIEW London Office 10a Soho Square London W.1 Edited by COMPTON MACKENZIE and CHRISTOPHER STONE Telephone Gerrard 2136, 2137 Telegrams Parmaxto, Rath, London Vol. XIII JANUARY 1936 No. 152 T is for me a happy coincidence that I should be 'writing the first editorial of the New Year with the sight of hundreds of records on my shelves which had been packed away in boxes for live years. The pleasure of meeting all these old friends again has been considerably marred by meeting so many of them warped so much out of shape as to be worthless. The damage was done by not removing the discs from the albums of the complete works when they were packed. The result is that I have lost beyond hope of recovery at least fifty albums, and another fifty or so all barely playable. I hope that this example of folly will prevent any reader of THE GRAMOPHONE from ever considering for a moment the possibility of leaving records in albums when he is packing them. The tale of losses is too hideous to be dwelt upon, and the thought of transporting so many hundreds of useless cripples from the Channel Islands to the Outer Hebrides is too hitter to contemplate. Fortunately no optimism was indulged in over the H.M.V. or Columbia albums for twelve discs. From these the records were all taken out, and the actual breakages have been astonishingly few. On the other hand, the records in the Astra albums were allowed to remain in, and this optimism was justified. So far as I have been able to examine them, not one disc has been broken or warped, and I put it up to the Gramophone Exchange that they should see about getting these albums made again. I bought 1 he last of the stock about ten years ago, and they are about twenty times as good as any album before or since. Compared with the H.M.V., Columbia, Broadwood, and others of my old albums, they look as if I had bought them yesterday and inherited the rest from my great-grandfather. They prevent warping. They prevent breakage. The only minor disadvantage t hey have is that one side of the record is hidden when it is in place, but this is so trifling compared wit h the superiority of the Astra in every other respect that it is hardly worth mentioning. My friend Mr. Russell of the Gramophone Exchange will remember them, and I really think he should cónsider putting them on the market agai. I have A2 EDITORIAL about a couple of hundred which I suppose cost on an average between the twelve -inch and the ten -inch six shillings apiece. Moreover, these Astra albums are so portable that they can be used as carriers. They are also very compact. Four of them will go to three I I.1ll. V.s. It is too early to attempt anything except a few disjointed comments on some refreshed impressions of these old records, and in any case I have not had time since moving into my new house to do much play ing of the gramophone. A library of nearly ten thousand hooks and a collection of what cannot be less than eight thousand records take a good deal of storing away, and it will be weeks before I get them into any order on my shelves. The first comment I have to make is about Caruso and Gigli. I have never really had the slightest doubt about the superiority of Caruso's voice, but it was not until I played a few of his best early records against the pre -electric Gigli records that I realised tie boundless superiority of Caruso in any aspect of a great tenor. Take, for instance, that famous trio from Verdi's I Lombardi sung by Caruso, Alda and Journet on a bull H.M.V. It is still in the catalogue. \line is a single -sided disc, but I see that on the present red DM126 the trio from Samson and Delilah sung by Caruso, Homer and Journet occupies the other side. Caruso is playing the part of Orontes, a Saracen chief who has fallen in love with Giselda, a captive Christian girl ; but having been mortally wounded he is dying in the cave of Peter the Hermit on the banks of the Jordan. Urged by Giselda and by Peter himself, played by Journet, Orontes is converted to Christianity, and this trio records the conversion. Caruso manages to suggest a man in extrernis without once spoiling the lovely timbre of his voice. The singing of Journet and Alda supports him magnificently ; in fact, this record is one of the best to be obtained. Of course, the old pre -electric accompaniment sounds a bit like an aceordeon, but what does that matter when three such glorious voices are so perfectly recorded? I commend this record to readers who are looking out for something really special with which to surprise

6 312 The ORAMOI'HO E January 1936 their friends. I paid nine shillings for it, but nowadays you can get it and another old nine -shilling trio for six shillings and sixpence. I have not yet come across any of my twelve -inch McCormack discs, but I have unearthed all the ten -inches and find them as good as I ever thought them. I was particularly pleased to play over again a couple of songs with obbligatos b\ Kreisler-Ca.rmela, a charming Sorrentine ditty, and, on the other side, bloszkowski's Serenade set to ridiculous words, but nevertheless most attractive. The Galli-Curti records were a little disappointing. I had once thought her arias from La Sonnamhula and I Puritani loyelier singing than they have proved on hearing them again after a long interval. On the other hand, Alma Gluck seems to me on hearing her again an even more exquisite singer than 1 had supposed her. The records of hers I have been playing are no longer in the catalogue, but if anybody has a chance of securing a disc of Gluck singing The Old Folks at home with her husband Zimbalist playing an obbligato of Dvorak's Humoresque, let him not miss it. Another exquisite record of hers is llave You Seen But awhyte Lilie Grow? And equally lovely is her singing of Reynaldo Ilahn's setting of Verlaine's L'lleure Exquise, which would certainly challenge strongly for the right to be called the most sensuously beautiful song ever written. There is another song, too, by Le Roux in the same sensuous French style calico Le.Vi/, of which Gluck made the only recording. It is time some of our present singers for the gramophone go chasing about a bit for songs like t his. I know that Radio has severely damaged the sales of vocal records, and that the public seems to want only the hackneyed favourites. Still the future of singing is with the gramophone, not with wireless, and it is a gloomy look -out if vocal records have to be abandoned because nobody buys them. Here again t here seems to me an opportunity for the cheap reprint. One old purple Columbia which used to give me great pleasure turned up, and that was a record of Elsa Stralia singing Ocean, 7 hou Blighty.cter. That has vanished from the Columbia catalogue, where St ralia is now only represented in a duet with Frank \lullings. A purple Stracciari singing Eri Tu Che Blacchiavi from Ballo in 1Llusrlrera is one of the great baritone performances on the gramophone, and I see it is still in the Columbia catalogue as a light -I lure disc with Germont's song Di Provenza on the other side. A name which has disappeared from the 11.\1.V. catalogue is Graziella Pareto. She made some beautiful soprano records, but as 1 remember when she appeared at Covent Garden she was not happy. lit her the management had matte things difficult or the critics had been unkind. She made one record of an enchanting Florentine folk song, Bimba Rim/vita. This is worth looking out for at second hand. \lost of Titta Rutfo's records halve disappeared f om tire II.\I.V. catalogue, and among them a charming song from Leoncavallo's opera, Zrrbá, Piccolo Zingara. I recommend this mos ing little aria to the attention of some of our contemporary barytones. Then, of course, there were the De Gogorza records to dig out. Nobody has sting La Paloma better than he, and I am glad to see that is still in the II.\I.V. catalogue with another bird on the other side-la Golondrina (The Swallow), a melodious Mexican song. Too many of his records have been removed if retention be judged by merit. All his Spanish songs are perfect. So, too, is his singing of \lozart, and he even made a very good record of Sally in Our Alley. The II.\l V. has Number One Catalogue, Number wo Catalogue, and theconnoisseur Catalogue. Would it not be a joy to impoverished gramophone enthusiasts if there could be a Number Three Catalogue, devoted entirely to cheap reprints? I suppose that plenty of records of De Gogorza are still avai lab e in t he second-hand mar (et, but the supply cannot last for ever, and it does seem a pity that a master of his art like De Gogorza should gradually fade from the public's mini. Ile sang with extraordinary ease and grace, and few singers have concealed so much art so successfully. As I was turning over the records I came across what I drink was the first Vehudi Alenuhin, on the label of which Ire appears as \laster 1 ehu h \lenuhin ; but after all it seems only yesterday that \lischa Elman vas playing in Etons, and Iris picture in the current II.\l.V. catalogue shows a bald-headed gentleman in his mid forties. Some way must, really be devised of keeping t hese old records in circulation. I was particularly struck by t hat article by í\1r. S. C. Greaves in our Christmas number. I had no idea that so many records hail been made of the palmy days of the music -hall. Surely here is anot lies opportunity for testing the idea of cheap reprints. I was not quite clear always whether some of the records mentioned by \lr. Greaves could still be obta'ned. ror instance; 1 should much like to have t Ire record of Victoria \lonks singing Give My Regards to Leicester Square or I f you want to have a row, wail rill the sun.chines. I would give much, too, for a record b\ T. E. Danville. Did he ever make a record of Press the Button of the. Front Door Bell? \nd did George Iiobey ever make - a record of Say No llore About It? \lost of these old records are mach better than we thought therm once upon a time. On the first II.\I.V. gramophone I knew, a model of 1908, no voice except Caruso's really had any effect at all. \\'e had a record of E n ny 1)estinn singing (In Bel Ili, and it sounded like a grasshopper chirping. Yet a good modern acoustical instrument like the Expert or the dark 10:A would transform such a disc. Orchestral records, too, were hopeless with old-style soundboxes, and looking back to those years it seems to me extraordinary now that better reproduction was not achieved much earlier. In trying to get away from tire oil gaudy

7 .,r January 1936 The GI:1.1/OP/IOVE 313 metal exterior horn to the horn concealed in a cabinet, music was sacrificed to furniture, and I think if THE GRAMOPHONE may he proud of anything in its career it may be proud of that band of enthusiastic amateurs who did so much to restore the exterior horn to its proper place. As I write these words, I hear that Mr. E. JI. Ginn's All Range horn has reached Barra, but I shall not have an opportunity of trying it out in time to make any comments for t his number, because we have to go to press earlier than usual and my copy must leave by to -morrow's post. 11 ith the All Range horn and the Mark 10 k my room will look like the deck of a steamship. Unfortunately, one of t he a hums which turned its contents into a switchback was the Columbia one of the Second Sibelius Symphony conducted by Kajanus, so that I was unable to compare it with the new.. :... H.M.V. version of this symphony played by the Boston Symphony Orchestra under Koussevitzky on five and a half red discs. I expect some people - will grumble because the twelft h side is blank, but these odd Eo sides are a great nuisance be-..;.,.. o cause it is often extremely diffi-.l cult to find a short piece of music that sill fit in with a great work like this Second 9. y - a. Symphony, and I applaud r?. H.M.V. for leaving the twelfth side blank. It is much less annoy ing than dividing the music in such a way as to leave too wide a margin, merely to eke it out to twelve sides. Another device tried for a time was to et somebody speak an introduction to the music. There are one or two ghastly examples of this on Stokowski records. Stokowski may be a good conductor, but he has about the ugliest voice and the most tiresome diction that could be heard on a record. The ideal presenter of music has yet to be found. One enjoyed Sir V% afford Davies over the wireless, but even he on a gramophone record is apt to sound tiresome after a certain amount of repetition. The conventional B.B.C. met hod of presentation is deplorable, chiefly because the announcers are under the impression that in order to convey the fact that they are using Italian words it is necessary to speak like a mincing schoolgirl. Anyway, it is a waste of time and energy to allot one side of a record to a spoken introduction. When oncé it has been heard it is as good as a blank, since nobody ever wants to hear it again. So on the ss hole the best solution of spare space is to leave it blank The Editor and his new house, " Suidheachan," Isle of Barra as II.M.V. have done on the twelfth side of the Sibelius symphony. I really believe this is the best piece of orchestral recording we have had. The noise is often terrific, but there was not a single moment when I felt it was too much of a good thing. I think that more of the dynamic force of Koussevitzky's conducting has been captured in this recording than in any previous recording by him, and I regret more than ever that the latest II.M.V. Choral Symphony was entrusted to Stokowski instead of to him. I,' hat hoped that we should have had another volume of the Sibelius Societ y ready to greet the composer on his seventieth birthday, but e perhaps it was more appropriately celebrated by offering this superb recording of a superb performance. Will some obliging and well-informed reader let me know the date of the first performance of The Su art of Tuonela in England? It was at Queen's Hall, and I was present. I was also present,- at t he first performance of Till Eulenspiegel, and I want to discover why Till Eulenspiegel should have made a first impression of wild cacophony and wiry the Swan of Tuonela should have made an instant appeal. If I sere offered - to -day a chance of hearing - either composition I should always choose the Sibelius work, not because Till Eulenspiegel sounds cacophonous any longer, but because The Sawn remains more elusive. I can lie back now and hum in my head \ arious phrases of Till Eulenspiegel, but I cannot recapture in ms mind a note from Tuonela. This quest ion of tunes which haunt the mind is perplexing enough. Years ago my wife, one of her sisters, and one of her brot hers happened to play when I was present the Mendelssohn Trio in D, and some ten years afterwards, without having heard the trio once in the meantime, I much surprised my wife by humming with unusual accuracy, the beginning of the first movement. I can hum it at this moment, but if I were to be threatened with instant death for failure to obey, I could not hum melodies much better loved, equally simple, and heard a hundred times more often. For instance, I doubt if there is any composition I have listened to more often than Beethoven's Spring Sonata, and yet I cannot reproduce at will a single one of its extremely simple melodies. In fact, in the whole of chamber music I believe that

8 314 The GRAMOPHONE January 1936 the only other movement besides the first movement of this Mendelssohn Trio in D that I can always reproduce is the last movement of the Brahms Sextet in B flat (Opus 18), which appeared last month exquisitely played by the Pro Arte Quartet with Alfred Hobday and Anthony Pini as second viola and second violoncello. By the way, I notice in last month's GRAMOPHONE that Alfred Hobday is made second violin by mistake. This sextet was one of our first publications for the National Gramophonic Society, and it is splendid to have this series of enchanting tunes recorded under modern conditions. It is a completely typical piece of youthful music, and it would make an ideal item in a Brahms chamber music programme between the two early piano quartets of which I was writing recently. There is the advantage of the gramophone. A concert performance of these three works in an afternoon would involve seven players and would not be economically feasible, so nobody is ever likely to hear such a concert performance. In fact, the Sextet itself is very rarely played because it involves two extra instrumentalists. Yet it is a work capable of reaching the widest popularity, and I press it upon the attention of all those who are beginning to enjoy chamber music. I had not heard it for five years when the H.M.V. version arrived a week or two ago. Tet, as I said, the melody of that last movement has haunted me all the time and I can at any moment hum it. As I dictate these words my secretary reminds me that there is anot her melody from chamber musi which I am alway s capable of humming, a melody from one of Schubert's quartets, and it is true that I can usually hum that melody and very often do hum it unconsciously, but in spite of that claim I cannot recapture it at t his moment, and I cannot even say with certainty from which quartet it comes. So I must fall back on the melodies from Mendelssohn's Trio and Brahms's Sextet. This little discussion has given me an idea for another competition, and I think this time the prize shall be this Brahms Sextet. I sl all confine the competition, which must be something of a lottery, to devotees of chamber music. The prize will he given to the reader whose list of six most easily remembered melodies from works of chamber music most nearly coincides with the votes of the majority. You simply write down your choice of melodies as they occur to you and as you aré al le to hum them to yourself and allot them to their proper works and movements, then send your list to THE GRAMOPHONE, 10t, Soho Square, by February Write " Tunes " on the outside of the en. elope. Remember that this competition is to go to THE GRAMOPHONE Office, not to,ne. By t he way, I am already receiving some most interesting entries for the competition I announced for January 10th, and if the rest of the entries come lip to the first ones it is going to be difficult for me to decide who is to have that glorious album of the Schubert Quintet. Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker Suite must have been recorded as often as any piece of music, apart from the popular affairs of the moment. The latest recording on three red H.M.V. discs is made by Stokowski and the Philadelphia Orchestra. I found it a most agreeable performance, and to my relief not too heavily over - weighted by volume of sound. One of our great puzzles at Herm was to find out what the instrument was in the Arab dance that made such a queer little sibilant noise, and I used to set the discovery of this instrument as a test for the innumerable soundboxes over whose merits we used to argue in the old days. That first version was one of Sir Landon Ronald's records as I remember. In the end we decided that the instrument was some strange oriental pipe until we bethought ourselves of getting hold of the score, when we discovered that it was a tambourine being stroked. In this latest version the stroking of the tambourine has not been so evident as it has been in several others between. Sir Landon Ronald, to whom the gramophone owes so much, had given us no records for a long time, but last month I was delighted to find him conducting the London Philharmonic Orchestra and Kreisler in the Mendelssohn Violin Concerto, and a charming performance it is of this perennially popular work. I still think that the most remarkable performance of any part of this concerto was made by Ysaye when he played the last movement or an extract from the last movement on an old purple single -sided Columbia disc. What a wonderful impression of extreme affluence those old purple Columbia discs gave! Owing to the need of hurry this month with my editorial on account of Christmas, I have not had time to play through the Columbia records of Gluck's Orpheus issued on eight discs. Nor have I heard the Decca production of Purcell's Dido and Aeneas. However, they shall be played presently by the All Range Expert and the Mark 10A facing each other like a couple of defiant ventilators on the new Cunarder. To all our readers, to the stall' of TILE GRAMOPHONE, and to everybody connected in the slightest way with records, I wish with all my heart a very happy and a very prosperous New Year. COMPTON MACKENZIE. We regret that the price of the Sibelius Second Symphony, H.M.V. DB , reviewed last month, was given as 36s. ; it should have been 33s., the last single -sided record costing only 3s. Readers are reminded that the entries to the two Christmas competitions, as detailed on pages 267 and 280 of the December issue, must be received by the 10th and 15th of January respectively. The former to be sent direct to the Editor at the Isle of Barra and the latter to the London Office.

9 January 1936 The GRAMOPIIOSE 31.5 ELISABETH RETH BERG "The Most Perfect Singer in the World" by THOMAS O'BRIEN OPERA enthusiasts are curious people. Like us Irishmen, she was invited to appear by Toscanini. Of her debut there they dearly love to wrangle, but with this difference : in Aida, one of the leading Milan journals said : " Rethberg's that whereas we devote ourselves almost exclusively to the voice is beautiful, has a tremendous range with an astounding political field and its strange inhabitants, they content evenness in all registers. She has a lovely, youthful timbre themselves with arguing as to the comparative merits of this and masters the art of modulation with greatest skill, indisor that famous singer. How rarely they can agree that a pensable for sincere emotional singing. Her style and technique certain artist is justly entitled to a place among the exalted! are masterly, able to produce a perfect legato and portando. But they can do it ; for. once in It is especially noteworthy that a while, a singer appears in the her diction is faultless, a rare world of Grand Opera who. be- th ing with a foreigner. Her succause of superlative qualities of cess was complete and tempestuvoice and artistry, merits that ously manifested in the applause place. Such were Patti and Melba of the audience." Another Milanat their best. Such a one to -day is ese paper said of her performance : Elisabeth Rethberg, whose mag- "Her victory over Milan opera - nificent singing in Lohengrin, lovers was complete." In 1929 Schwanda and Prince Igor in the she sang the rolo of Donna Elvira last Covent Garden season has in Don Giovanni in New York, been acclaimed as the finest heard and proved a perfect Mozartian at the famous opera house for singer. many years. From a purely Though Rethberg has gained musical point of view, her singing her principal successes on the of Elsa's music was of that rare operatic stage, she has also won quality of which one finds it diffi- a high reputation as a concert cult to write restrainedly ; and singer. She is reputed to have a few who were lucky enough to repertory of 1,000 songs, including hear it would quarrel with the many of the finest of Schubert, title of " The Most Perfect Singer Mozart, Schumann, Wolf and 1 in the N orld " bestowed on Reth- Richard Strauss. She is said to berg by the New York Guild of have studied and memorised the Vocal Teachers. a chief soprano parts of no less than Elisabeth Rethberg was born of 106 operas. She is also an musical parents in a village in the - excellent pianist. Erz Mountains, between Saxony A Fortunate indeed is the gramoand Bohemia. From her earliest '`,0` phile who possesses all Rethberg's days she displayed exceptional records and a gramophone capable musical talents, and at the age of ri +,e.. of doing them real justice. Her sixteen was sent to study at Dres- voice records ideally, and nearly den. For two years she studied all her records are splendid ; but singing and pianoforte at the Con- to hear them at their best, one servatoire there, and two years Elisabeth Rethberg requires a big machine, preferably later made her debut at the an open -horn instrument such as Dresden Royal Opera House. It was a triumph, and there the E.31.G. Ten A or Ten B. Her voice is too brilliant for soon followed engagements at the Imperial Opera in Vienna, smaller acoustic machines. and on an electrical instrument and concert tours throughout Germany and Scandinavia. much of the individual Retnberg quality is lost. In this From then on, her career as an operatic star of the first order article I propose to deal only with some of her finest H.M.V. was assured. Since, she has appeared with dazzling success records. She recorded some years ago for Brunswick, the at the Metropolitan. New York, the Royal Opera, Budapest, results in several instances being very fine, but the records the Grand Opera, Paris, the Royal Opera House, Rome, are now almost unobtainable except through the medium and the Scala, Milan. In all she has been hailed as one of the of second-hand shops. She has also recorded for Parlophone. greatest of living singers, and an actress of uncommon ability. These records, however, I have not heard. In 1925 she came more or less unheralded to stately Covent In my opinion the best Rethberg record is H.M.V. DB1517, Garden, where she made her debut in Aida, the others in the containing the " Ave Maria " and " Willow Song " from cast being Lindi, Franci and Georgette Caro. It was in many Otello. This is a masterpiece of singing and recording. respects a poor performance of Verdi's great opera ; but there The haunting phrases of the " Ave Maria." sung with matchless were no two opinions as to the performance of the title role : purity, possess an ineffable beauty. There is much greater it was simply superb. Rethberg's singing of " O Patria Mia " difficulty in selecting the runner-up. The Aida arias on was a thing of unforgettable beauty-a supreme example of DI451 are splendidly given and recorded, and so are those the fast -disappearing art of bel canto at its best. In 1928 from Lohengrin and Tannhauser on D1420. The quietly she sang with great success in the premiere of Respighi's reflective opening of Elsa's Dream is exquisite, while the opera The Sunken Bell at the Metropolitan, and during the sweeping final phrase of Elisabeth's Greeting displays the New York season sang a total of forty-nine performances. power and quality of the great singer's voice at its best. I The following year she won fresh laurels at La Scala, where care less for the Faust " Jewel Song " on DB1456, but the

10 316 The GRAMOPHONE January 1936 King of Thule ballad on the reverse side is sung with great warmth, to a rather dull accompaniment. The attractive Hallo in Maschera aria, " Morro, ma prima in grazia," on D is a fine example of singing and recording. The singing of Amelia's other aria on the same record is a splendid example of Rethberg's dramatic powers, but the recording leaves something to be desired. That incomparable barytone of the old school, de Luca (who appears to be singing as well as ever, despite the fact that he has been on the operatic stage for thirty odd years or so), joins Rethberg in a superb rendering of the Amonasro-Aida duet on D This is easily one of the best modern operatic records I have ever come across. The two other records from the Nile Scene, in which Lauri- Volpi is the Radames, display ideal singing by Rethberg, but Lauri-Volpi's fine voice is thinly recorded, save in the closing trio, which is splendid. Lastly, we come to a record containing two Verdi trios, " Qual volutta trascorrere " from I Lombardi and a lesser -known one from Attila. The effect made by three such voices as those of Rethberg, Gigli and Pinza (the finest living Italian bass) is simply overpowering. This is a fine record-but very definitely not one for owners of portable machines. With this I close what I feel is a feeble tribute to a really great singer. I shall consider myself sufficiently rewarded if it leads other gramophiles to make a closer acquaintance with the records named, and having done so come to the conclusion they must inevitably come to, that while Rethberg lives, so also shall live the glorious art of bel canto. Music : The Child and the Masterpiece, by Percy A. Scholes., (Oxford University Press. I2s. lid.) I am sorry to have to start my notice of Dr. Scholes' new hook with a grievance, but I was surprised to find that in t he opening section, " _History of the Appreciation Movement," not a single mention is made of the work of the H.M.V. I,ducation Department started, under \1'a ter Yeomans. in though Dr. Scholes speaks of the Aeolian Company's activities in regard to the pianola. Though I was so closely connected wit h the Education Department, perhaps I may be allowed to claim that the lectures we gave in literally thousands of schools of all types, training colleges. and to associations of teachers, as well as to the general public, put the gramophone on the map educationally as nothing else could have done. in the early days Dr. Scholes himself wrote an excellent little book for us. Listening by Means of the Gramophone. and I think he remembers very well the tremendous amount of prejudice that had to be overcome both against the use of a mechanical aid to musical appreciation and against a commercial firm undertaking such work as we did. The work has had this reward. t hat few schools ii Ito take music at all seriously do not now possess a gramophone together with the special educational material we laboured tó produce. Dr. Scholes' book is defined as " A compreheusi e handbook of aims aid methods in all that is usually called ` Musica Appreciation.' " and is one of those encyclopaedic surveys that its author is so skilful in compiling. It is therefore a hook for reference rather than continuous reading. Dr. Scholes puts up ninepin after ninepin of objections only to knock most of them down w'th the balls of common sense. In the most interesting part of the hook he discusses whether a man is musical or not, if " appreciation ' makes things easy or difficult, whether it is opposed to technical proficiency, if music is only for the elect, and many such kindred topics. 13ut I tun not sure that Dr. Scholes sufficiently distinguishes between music as a matter of enjoyment-by which I mean more than a mere titillation of the senses. but predominantly emotional satisfaction and music as an intellectual activity. II is opponents' arguments as to the necessity- of being able to read music (and he well read in music). to play, to understand the constructive aspects of the art, are all valid if we regard music from this second angle. To take one point only, beautiful phrasing means little to the ordinary music -lover, though be may, without adiertence on his part, be affected by it. " The rest may reason and welcome, 'tis we musicians know." is deeply true..\ncl I think that one may prove the validity of this conclusion by turning to an art which one loves but of iuinch one knows but little, and comparing that BOOK REVIEWS appreciation with the appreciation of the art in whose language one has been steeped all one's life. Dr. Scholes takes Mr. Stewart Macpherson to task for desiring that all musical instruction in schools should be given by professional musicians. I studied some years under Mr. Macpherson at the Royal Academy of Music and have never ceased to be inspired by the high musical ideals lie infused into us. But while wishing for the realisation of this particular ideal. Mr. Macpherson would be the first to pay tribute to the devoted work of amateur musicians in schools a ho are casually told off to " do the music " with. as equipment, a worn-out piano or an ancient gramophone. Similarly, there are few greater pleasures the trained musician can have than to meet and talk with a really keen music -lover. Both calm learn much from the other. I feel, also, that Dr. Scholes underrates the value of musical illustration at the piano : quite apart from the question of analysis being practically- impossible on the gramophone, the personal appeal of stch playing as the teacher cam do is tremendous. Here is a book that all teachers of music must have-i only wish it were less expensive --containing matter for many debates. since there is no angle of its subject not passed in review, and it is very encouraging in its conclusions to the general practitioner. A. R. Music Under Eight : A Book for Teachers and Parents, by Louie l,. de Rusette. (Kagan Paul. 3s. 6d. net.) In our modern educational system the musical instruction of children is apt to begin rather late in life: if begun at the proper time, it may be misdirected or even wasted owing to a lack of understanding of child psychology on the pa t of the teacher. Miss de Rusette bases her book on more than twenty years' experience in teaching music to children between the ages of four and seven. She arrives at certain conclusions. which she addresses (be it noted) not only to teachers. but to parents. Although parents may interest themselves in the musical tale its of their children, it does not follow that they concern themselves with the right development of these talents : in spite of her good intentions, therefore, it is wondered whether this book will fall into the hands of the people for whom it is written. If it does, well and good. Most infants pass through two stages of musical development-the pitase of melodic unconsciousness, when rhythm dominates, and the pitase of melodic consciousness, when " a personal love of music is born." Now and when to present suitable material at these differing stages is Miss cio Rosette's theme, which she develops in simple but fascinating language. W. W. J.

11 January 1936 The GRAMOPHO \'E ut nitsqqitt : tid1: 1 Begins Monday, January 6th, 1936 HE close of the hectic pre -Christmas selling period inevitably leaves Imllof's with a fine selection of "part -exchange," demonstration, shop-soiled and other instruments which are heavily reduced in price in order to clear.... But whether you are radio bargain -hunting or not, make the Sale an occasion for visiting Imhof's and seeing what a wonderful place it is. Five big floors devoted to the display and demonstration of all the reputable makes of radio! Twenty-six private audition rooms! And, always at your service, the advice and guidance of Imhof's experts. An intimate Record Recital will be held in the Concert Hall at Imhof House on Wednesday, Jan. 15th. at 7-30 p.m. you are cordially invited. Admission Free. SETS OF.. HI_GH_,,RÉPÜTEt K.B. 3 -valve set for A.C. Mains model. SALE PRICE 30s. EKCO model 74 for D.C. mains. 200,250 volts. Seven - stage superhet. Black/Chromium 1934 model. Formerly 14 gns. SALE PRICE [6 19s. 6d. PYEWmodel G. D.C. 200,30 volts model. 3 -valve. Formerly 15 gns. SALE PRICE E6 10s. Od. LOTUS Radiogramophone. 3 -valve for D.C. mains. Formerly 22 gns. SALE PRICE [6 ADEY, the smallest battery set manufactured. 4 -valve model. Formerly 15 gns. SALE PRICE E4 19s. 6d. McMICHAEL Lodex battery receiver model. Formerly 16 gns. SALE PRICE 0 19s. 6d. PYE P.B. model. 6 -valve battery portable. 1934/5. Formerly 14 gns. SALE PRICE 0o 19s. 6d. H.M.V. Auto -radiogram model 524. (1934) for A.C. mains. 7 -valve Superhet. Formerly 48 gns. SALE PRICE 21 gns. The above represent a Jew examples. tei a OSRAM Music Magnet. 3 -valve battery model. List price 00 10s. Od. SALE PRICE E1 10s. Od. R.G.D. 7 -valve Auto -radiogram. 1933'4 model. A.C. mains. 200,250 volts. Contained In beautiful walnut cabinet. Formerly t70 7s. Od. SALE PRICE 38 gns. ATWATER KENT. 7 -valve Superhet with energised moving -coil loudspeaker, for A.C. mains. 200/230 volts model. List price 32 gns. SALE PRICE E5 19s. 6d. COLUMBIA 10 -valve Radiogram, for A.C. mains. 200/250 volts. Push/pull amplifier, giving extraordinarily good quality. Contained in cabinet which cart only be described as a really fine piece of furniture. 1932/3 model. Formerly 95 gns. SALE PRICE 15 gns. MARCONI 3 -valve Radiogram. D.C. mains. 200/250 volts model. List price E30 9s. SALE PRICE E7 10s. Od. PHILIPS model 634 super -inductance receiver. Six valves, 1934 model. A.C. mains. 200/250 volts. List price E16 16s. Od. SALE PRICE 6 gns. f jti., rj Please send for complete Sale List 1 1 2, 1 1 4, 1 1 6, NEW OXFORD STREET, LONDON, W. C. 1


13 January 1936 The GRAMOPIIOI\-E 317 Chamber Music and the Gramophone BEETHOVEN'S STRING QUARTET IN E OP. 74 (THE " HARP ") by CYRIL M. CRABTREE Columbia LX (four 12 -inch records, 6s. each). Album No. 16a, with notes. IS Beethoven the greatest composer? It is questionable whether the sixteenth -century polyphonists did not altogether live on a higher plane than any composers since. It is even possible that the noblest music yet known is plainsong (that lost art, now being restored in the teeth of a few very red herrings, if the metaphor may pass). High up among the nearest approaches to the pure heights of sixteenth -century unaccompanied song are Beethoven's string quartets. His is music of a totally different outlook, of course ; and if sometimes even in his string quartets we begin to find Beethoven prosy, it is because it is the music of the Emancipated Modern Man ; because even in his string quartets he could never altogether admit the possibility that he had not (which is not at all the same thing as shirking the possibility that lie had) a Message. But when I set to work on this quartet, it was in the hope of earning one or two readers' gratitude for some slight musical enrichment ; not at all with the idea of debunking Beethoven. And when I started this introduction, its aim was to prevent any of the music, after going in at one ear, from merely going out at the other. \Vhence, then, all this about the sixteenth century? Simply because the only way to value anything is to know exactly what its value is. And when I play these records again-now, after writing the above-and again really give myself up to listening to them, I am not at all impatient to take them off and put on some Byrd or Palestrina-indeed, I should be impatient with anyone for doing so ; I value them, I think I apprehend their value ; but I find it very difficult to state their value. One thing is certain : they depend much on the playing-and I have never been more grateful to the Léner team than here. Perhaps it is that there is no egotism here : no dryness or hardness ; perhaps no sentimentality or sententiousness, even in the slow movement ; that Beethoven's immense h 'inanity is in full flood-has indeed been touched by Divine grace and has responded well. Palestrina sings of God and His works ; Beethoven, at his best, especially in his string quartets, and especially in this one, sings gloriously that man was made in God's image, and that even fallen man can, eventually, recover that image. \Ve might compare Palestrina, Byrd and Beethoven more technically. but I doubt whether we should get any further. FIRST MON EMENT Hum or whistle the first line of God Save the King. Stop on t ue last note of the first line-on the word King-fix that note, then start again with that as the first note (i.e., the first word to that note, the word our a note higher still this time). You have now changed either the tune or the Tonality ; if you have kept the tune intact, you have changed the Tonality ; you have shifted it up one whole tone. Start again. This time stop at the fourth note (on the syllable " gra- "). fix that note, and try to start again with that as the first note. (This is more difficult, but it doesn't matter if you can't do it very well ; t lie point here is to learn to recognise, to apprehend Tonality, and simple and more far-fetched changes of tonality.) You have now shifted it down one semitone. Change of tonality ís called Modulation, but the term modulation ís usually reserved for some kind of logical process (not one FLAT kind : any kind, so long as it is a logical process, not merely a single crude plunge, as we shall be able to see in this work) ; what you have just done, for instance, could hardly be called modulation. In dealing with the simple tonal system of, roughly, the end of the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries, we can often simply speak of the Rey. Tonality is the essence of such music as this quartet. The whole scheme of each movement is a tonal scheme ; and very often in the music's development the point depends on, often is purely a matter of, tonality. Perhaps it could be said that in the drama which organic music of this type is, the themes are the characters and the action is more in tonality than in anything else. Beethoven opens this quartet with dramatic gestures of tonality. It is, of course, characteristic of Beethoven to suggest strongly in the very first notes that we are in for no mere simple, easy-going music -making. Here, he opens with a short phrase suggesting half -veiled depths : pensive, undecided, somewhat questioning. Partly, of course, the melody at the top is responsible ; much more the obscure tona ity (starting with the key -chord, but continuing, and ending, with the note below the keynote flattened, and the bass never having the root note of a chord). After a longish silence, the phrase is repeated, and now makes us wonder more than ever what is to come, the last chord being changed to one that may lead off to almost any key. \Vhat is the significance of all this? Is it merely a Napoleonic pose? \Ve all know Beethoven's Napoleonic bent ; and with his consummate mastery of powerful expression in music it is inevitable that he should constantly be tempted to effect for effect's sake. No doubt ít su ould be a foolish impertinence to doubt that Beethoven was an easy match for such tempta- tions. Perhaps this introduction attunes us to a certain pensiveness which belongs to the quartet as a whole, and into which we might never settle were we to hear the first movement proper straightaway, without this introduction. Yet there seems in it a note of pessimism foreign to the rest of the work, and I am strongly inclined to feel that it is a more or less conventional relic of the symphonies of Beethoven's forerunners, who so often began with a brief but slow and gloomy introduction, only to follow with straightforward, breezy music-a kind of foothold from which to get a good kick-off. Returning to the start, we find that at the repetition of that initial phrase the last note is left suspended in mid-air ; other notes are added, one by one, and the music gradually begins to move. That initial phrase serves as a theme, with the final note adapting itself to circ*mstances (deep viola at k in., followed by 'cello in the bass next bar). After a pause at # in. comes a new phrase (all instruments together). At 2- in. this is abruptly dispelled by a loud chord-actually the last chord of that initial phrase. Viola starts the first theme again, the second theme follows, to be again swept aside by that chord, more tense and insistent still. Yet again the first theme tries to start, but now sinks into sheer indecision, in spite of 'cello's reiterated growlings of the theme (from 1 fs in.). Somehow we manage to grope our way out to the daylight of the key -chord at in., and are now launched into the movement proper, with a preliminary call to attention. D'Indy calls this call to attention a " thematic figure based on the notes of the common chord" (do, me, so), "which is to

14 318 The GRA.1/OPIIO.VE Janºnary 1936 dominate the whole of this first movement, and to lead directly, ithout the aid of a transition passage, to a very short second subject." Presumably he derives from it the pizzicato idea which gives the quartet its nickname, " The Harp Quartet" ; otherwise we hear nothing of it, except to call us to attention again at the beginning of the Development section and the Recapitulation. After the call to attention, violin 2 begins gently meandering -Al-and violin 1, above, announces a short, expressive sentence-a2, and the first subject proper. Any comment on this would be useless, except the mere calling attention to its rise and fall, and the contrasted rhythm and articulation of the two balanced halves ; it will repay infinite attention. It is immediately repeated by viola, two octaves lower, who, however, at the end runs straight down to the keynote, rounding it off easily-and running straight into what is surely, pace M. d'indy, as perfect a transition passage as could be. First, simply a short sentence (the pizzicato idea in viola and 'cello under quietly -pulsating chords) ending with a full stop-a full close, still ín the main key. This is at once taken up by the violins (chords now below), who alter its course a few points, and this time bring it round to land (at 12 in.) on a chord which the practised ear at once recognises as exactly right for the starting point for the second -subject section (i.e., in the key of the dominant, so). But no viola interrupts. The others take him in hand and gently lead him back to that chord. He shies again. (If you look closely for metaphors you may find them a little shifty.) What is to he done about it? Try him again, and this time compromise ; avoid that chord, or camouflage it... now we're safely past it, and heading straight for the second -subject section, which we reach fair and square at 2 in. This consists of little more than rushing scale -work ; evidently viola's display of self-assertion has raised a mild breeze. But this gradually dies down, and after a little gentle syncopation (to me slightly suggesting a male voice choir!) the Enunciation subsides completely. With the call to attention, plunging straight into a foreign key (N.B., without modulation), 1 in. before the end of side 1, we begin the Development section. Viola sets Al going, violin 2 contributes A2, violin 1 quickly capping it (not even letting violin 2 finish first). This proceeding is carried on, but at 2 in. before the end of the side 'cello, entering high up near the top of the tenor register, brings a note of passion to the discussion of A2. Violin 1 answers him, and these two carry on a long argument (the other two bustling about in the middle, trying to keep them apart!), wandering, as usual ín heated arguments, further and further from the point. It goes without saying that nobody gots any forrarder, that they eventually arrive at short, snappy to quoque.9-in all exactly as you would fact, that you will probably fin 1 expect. It is all only just subsiding when we reach the end of the side. At the start of side 2 'can, obviously disgusted, luckily happens to make a remark about that pizzicato idea, and viola and violin 2 at once seize the opportunity to chango the subject. Violin 1 sulks for a long time (low murmurs, i.e., held chords), but at last the other three become irresist'ble, he shakes himself, and at i in. all set off on the Recapitulation. Everytning goes perfectly straightforwardly now, of course, after the argument, everyone saying exactly what he said at first-or, better still, courteously reminding one of the others of some bright remark of his-but, we must admit, with new and happy point. The Recapitulation ends at 2 in. Everything has now been said, and everyone feels a little awkward, unable to think of any final bright remark. Suddenly violin 1 says " A2," 'olin 2 and viola say " Yes, of course! " and the three of them all talk at once for a minute, while 'cello looks on saying " M'm." Violin 1 next begins to gibber, and 'cello, to save the situation, sets off on the pizzicato idea once more, the other three joining him. +2 in. before the end, violin 2 and viola begin to declaim A2 with genuinely noble feeling and rising warmth and intensity (this is really a superb passage), 'cello supplying their bass, violin 1 of course continuing to gibber. At last all unite in that unanimous thought with which they concluded both the Enunciation and the Recapitulation, then finish up triumphantly pizzicato. I have said that Beethoven's immense humanity is in this music. Those people do but betray an imperfect humanity who cannot smile charitably at small human failings, and who are disgusted at the suggestion of such flippancies in great music. Certainly this music is for me comedy rather than tragedy ; but. however easy it may be to carry a fanciful idea to absurdity, I have certainly not reduced this to a farce. And, most certainly of all, while smiling at it, I am receiving a great deal more from it than a mere smile. It is perhaps as well to say this for the sake of those who are under the impression that " classical " music is no smiling matter. After all, tiny main object is to help you to find drama, and conversation, of seine kind, in it ; if I find a particular episode flippant, you solemn, musical analysis is not yet able to make either of us wrong. SECOND MOVEMENT This is one of those infinitely spacious, almost timeless, contemplative, or meditative movements of Beethoven. If the first movement is impulsive, reckless, sometimes even frivolous, this is infinitely and profoundly in earnest. But its solemnity is Christian, not pessimist ic. It is this movement that gives the quartet its place in music. It is built on a broad, continuous melody, complete in itself, made of regular balanced sentences and paragraphs, sung at the outset by violin 1. Notice the lay -out of the first two sentenceshigh violin 1 and low accompaniment ; there is at times two full octaves between tune and accompaniment. This melody ends at I - in., and is immediately followed by a second section, beginning and ending in the minor mode of the main key, but wandering far, through many tonalities, on its way. The chief melody returns with side 4, with a little expressive elaboration and twining tendrils in the accompaniment. Notice the profoundly eloquent start of the second paragraph (violin 2, taken for one note by viola, then passing again up to violin I). At 1 { in. a third tune enters, in a new key. 'Cello takes this up and repeats it at 1 in. At 2 in. a minor -mode dove opment of the chief melody seems to be beginning, but comes to nothing, the melody returning a third time intact á in. before the end of the side. Note that at the second paragraph tho tune does not pass up to the high second violin, but continues enshrined in the arabesques of violin 1. This is most delicately played ; perhaps too delicately, for there are crescendi, sforzandi, and forti indicated ín the score. The last paragraph of the tune begins side 5, stopping this time on the chord of the dominant (so). The second theme is recalled, but is soon relinquished for the peroration, which begins with a recalling of the final paragraph of the chief melody. The movement ends at 2 in. on side 5. THIRD MOVEMENT This is a very straightforward Scherzo -and-trio. The Trio starts side 6. D'Indy says it should be played exactly twice as quick as the Scherzo proper, and so it is. The Scherzo ret urns at é in., and is repeated note -for-note. The Trio is also repeated. and the Scherzo a third time. Notice the delightful effect : this time, after the first forte it is played (as directed by Beethoven) soft throughout, getting softer and softer as it goes on. About i in. before the end we run into a Coda, and with it yet more delights, starting

15 January 1936 The GIL4MOPIIO.\ E 319 by going right off into a far -away key (actually a semitone up, hence the soaring sensation)-then even higher still-and here I3eethoven gives us a touch of Brahnts's best wonderland fancy. Now for the greatest surprise of all : we never come hack! Beethoven pauses on a chord (a quite imperfect. inconclusive chord), then, having lest us on to something more than usually entrancing, gives us; without a break. the FOURTH MOVEMENT which turns out to be one of the most excuisite sets of Variations that even lie ever wrote, on one of his most gracious, consoling. heartening tunes. The variations form is perhaps the ideal finale. with its power of comforting us with the feeling that nothing more is going to " happen " : that we are now going simply to " make music." Certainly that is the inimitable function of this finale. It is a regular, balanced tune, in two halves, each repeated (as a e the two halves of each Variation). (To be exact, the two halves are not halves, but in the ratio of two to three. Why they are so perfectly balanced need not be discussed here.) In the tune, notice the smooth continuous lino at the beginning of the second part, and especially in contrast with the rest. I will not bespatter the Variations with epithets, which would help no one. I will just point out what it seems to me might need pointing. out. Variation I begins at I in. It is one of the freest, but you will find you can whistle every note of the tune to it, and will gradually find where it is (passing from one instrument to another, and only two or three notes of the whole tune actually missing). Variation 2 begins at II in. Viola flows round the tune. Variation :3 (the rest of side 7) mostly a rushabout for violin 2 and 'cello in double harness. Variation 4 (start of last side), notice the powerfully expres- sive figuration in 'cell) and viola (alternate y), below the tune, at the beginning of the second part. This figure at once suggests Brahms, with whom it was a favourite type. Variation 5 is a strong, buoyant, concerto -like piece for violin I. In the cool, suave Sixth Variation over a quietly throbbing bass drone, don't fail to notice the superb touch at the end of the first part, which this time remains in the main key. Beethoven, of course, knew far better than to make the same master -stroke twice ; and each Variation before this has followed the theme (Variation 4 not quite str'ctly) in modulating at this point Go a half -close (semicolon) in the relative minor (closely-related minor -node key). Listen to this last one. There is a Coda, based at first on the opening of the last Variation, then, after two false alarms (apparent imminence of going off the track) at the last moment, Beethoven ends with one or two wild pretences of more Variations-sheer impertinences-" I could go on with this for ever, but I've had enough of it " ; and with a gracious little bow he takes his leave of us. SCHOOL GRAMOPHONE NOTES (Continued from page 226, November issue) The Columbia History of Music (II) Dr. Scholes states quite clearly in the handbook to Volume I that the musical examples are intended for use in home, school and college, and for the professional student as much as for the intelligent lover of music. This is a tall order, and Dr. Scholes is well aware that what is meat for the experienced stt dent is fur too strong for the innocent schoolboy. The fact is, of course, that t his I I istory, planned as it is for a wide circle of listeners. meets the needs of no particular type perfectly : but then it is the first work of its kind, and is in some respects experimental. It behoves the school teacher to select and present his material according to the abilities of his pupils. A fair proportion of the records in Volume I have no superficial attraction for young people. 'I his is important : it means that preparation for listening mast be ttnu-ually thorough. Li schools where there is little time or money for gramophone work-and there are plenty of these-t he suggestion is made that records Nos. 571 I, 5713, and 5715 be omitted in the first instance. Reasons will be given hereunder. This recommendation casts no reflection on the value. of the records in the History, but is based on the knowledge that the work is not planned solely for children. The first record in the album (Col ) illustrates early organum. and proves fascinating to any child who also sees on the blackboard four paralle lines rising and falling like the melodic outline in the first stanza. \\'hen the class discovers that the choir imitated (to new words) the tune of the priest because no musical notation existed at the tins) ; titat the melodic curves proceeded mainly stepwise ; that the s.;ttings were moda, and sung in Latin; then the record helps the class to go back in imagination a t housand years in order to attend a church service. Such points as these may be elicited from the pupils after two or three auditions, but they are not mentioned in the handbook, which is concerned with facts and not teaching ntet.hods. l'he second side of record 5710 is valuable, even if children fail to follow it attentively to its conclusion. There the choir obviously avoids imitation, because t to tenors take up the tune after the " lead " given by the priest : the other oices merely provide a free descant. Some reference to the modern revival of descant should he made at this stage. Four more plainsong examples appear on record 5711, and as children are riot impressed by a surfeit of this style of music, the record may either be omitted altogether or just played through once while the text is being studied. The magnificent Sanctus Ly Palestrina must on no account be excluded. however. It should be heard a number of times, each wit a different end in view ; and on the last occasion the Parlophone record (Ií1021) of the same work should be substituted, if possible. Experience shows that children prefer the 13erlin version to the Westminster Cathedral setting in the Columbia History : all kinds of reasons will be given for the preference. The music for Elizabethan instruments (on Col ) is of extreme importance. But why six pieces for virginals, and none for the recorders' Introduce the children to the virginals, therefore, on 5712 ; omit entirely 5713 (unless it is essential that variation form should now be studied) ; and substitute Col. D " Greensleeves " for two recorderswhich is not in the History. Hints on the classroom use of the second half of Volume I will follow next month. W. W. JOHNSON.

16 320 The GRAMOPHONE January 1936 ROUND AND ABOUT WITH W. R. A. A Little of What You Fancy... I have to thank several readers who wrote in response to my inquiry about favourite composers. and how t heir records " wear " (not in the physical disc -sense, but in the mental - spiritual). One does not, of course, attempt to make averages from a small amount of highly diversified material. The chief value in anyone's setting clown such statistics lies in his seeing in which way his likes or tastes move. One table shows Mozart an easy winner, with 641 playings out of a total of 1,602 in about a year and a half. Here is a true fan, for the only other composer who tops the 100 mark is Beethoven, though Rossini and Verdi are close to it : the operatic pull, apparently, is strongest. Another reader, beginning with romantics exclusively, worked back to Bach, but stuck at Handel, and has never liked him. A third roved cheerfully thus : Beethoven, 524 sides play ed in ten months; Saint -San ns, 266 ; Mendelssohn, 262 ; Schubert, 244 ; Liszt, 175 ; and so on, Elgar and Dvorak coming last with 51 and 37 respectively. He comments : " This analysis has shown me that I am more romantic than I considered myself to be." A good inc Mat ion. in these days when so much dreary anti -romantic stuff is being churned out. I heard an amusing American comment on a play that was supposed to be un peu shocking: " Shocked? No, I wasn't shocked : I was swindled." That is how I feel about so much ext remist mu sic : as the Irish humorist Percy French did about the " bed and board, 25s."-" I declare to you, 'twas a meek before I knew which was the bed and which the board." After the unillustrious lustrum, which I should date from about we had a doldrums spell. Now, with the growth of interest in men like Bax and Sibelius, the Delius Society, and the fresh hopo in people like Bloch, we are forgetting the would -be -shock ings, and getting down to real music again, thanks be. But even I get a slight shock now and again-as when a reader wrote and told me of the records he had bought, and, as a poor man to whom that meant sacrifices, had engaged my sympathy. Then he suddenly delivered a blow that. though not unfamiliar, still momentarily winds one : " I cannot stand Beethoven or Mozart. and the above records make up my entire collection." His natural bent, as the list showed, was for highly coloured orchestral music (it was all good stuff) : none of his treasures dated beyond Brahms. Probably he knows nothing yet of the c ifferent joys that chamber music and opera have to offer. Perhaps they never may " get " him ; but that does not matter, if he enjoys himself arnong,fine music. There are many mansions, and not everybody can, or need, live equally happily in them all. Chips from Workshops I suppose a good many book -lovers share my habit of jotting down things read that please or stimulate. Not everything that strikes the fancy at the moment seems equally significant months afterwards, but I have on my desk a pile several inches deep of good sayings, suggestive aphorisms, and the like, not forgetting oddities of journalism. ranging from printers' errors to horrible examples of attempted " appreciation " and alleged music criticism. Perhaps a few chips from good men's workshops may be acceptable. and I m ill set down a few now and again, all having some reference to the methods or standards of art. I I ere are one or two : "Praise is the most insidious of all methods of treachery known to the world ;... intriguing schemers know how to stifle every kind of talent at its birth by heaping laurels on its cradle."-balzac, in The Country Doctor. (Can the same charge be laid against those innocent, unintriguíng non -schemers, prodigy -fans?) An artist's sound recipe, from Bourget : " Sois belle et tais- toi! " And a nod, as good as a wink. for the critic (a Portuguese washerwoman's song-copla-quoted by the Cordons in one of their entertaining and thoughtful books) : " I do not care for too much truth, For truth will only stir up strife. Away goes sweet companionship And all the courtesies of life." On the other hand. the critic should remember, when inclined to be too easy. that, according to Barbusse, "the optimist is the permanent accomplice of all evil -doers." This reminds me of the definition told me by Mr. Stewart Macpherson as having been given by a child : " The man who looks on the bright side of things is called an optimist. The man who looks on the dark side is called a pianist." (But it's mostly the audience that gets the glooms.) \Vhich leads me to what some may consider the recurring Rondo -main - theme of this page-gaffes : otherwise, W. R. A.'s bonnet -bees (but they don't buzz so loudly. I trust, as to deafen anybodyeven me). A Gaffe a Day... Our excellent hunter, Mr. P. G. Hurst, has an eye and ear for gaffes, as well as first edit'ons. He says he has to ice heard a B.B.C. announcer spea of " Bach's Ave Maria, arranged by Gonnod." The third time. somebody really ought to shoot. Another time he heard the thrilling statement that Tamagrro's voice caused the chandelier at the Coliseum to vibrate. Tamagno is an old-timer. but I don't think he goes hack so far as ancient Rome, and I doubt if he comes forward to St. Martin's Lane clays : but it is just possible (Coliseum built 1904 ; Tamagno died 1905). Mr. Hurst rightly hits out at performers putting their names to reminiscences which contain absurd blunders. One singer, he tells me, in the hook attributed to her, speaks of the applause she got at the first rise of the curtain in Lohengrin. The first woman (Elsa) doesn't appear until Scene 2. Another singer seems to have won the gratitude of a tenor in Caralleria, who expressed it " between each curtain " of this one -act opera. She also refers to 13attistini and Devoyod as tenors. 31r. V. W. Barber offers a neat comment on a perhaps quite haply comparison of Tibbett's voice to polished mahogany : "'Timber or timbre? " : adds a slip by one concerned with a sister art, in which he wrote of a forthcoming production of Hamlet u itlr actors " alternating in the parts of Romeo and 3lercutio " : and winds up with a sweet word from an advertisem*nt of a record on which certain invented characters are declared to have " materialised in the flesh.' As they are jazzrnonger-s, I cry " O! si sic omruia! "-and suggest steel : the colder the better. Glásses Unfilled The record of a Beethoven duet which refers to spectacles is still a mystery. I have looked it up : Polydor The title is : " Duett Es-Dur fiir Viola and Violoncello (mit zwei 0b1igaten Augengliisern) "-"with two obbligato eyeglasses." Whatever or whoever they were, the', don't perform, for the record contains nothing butt the two string parts. An Edinburgh reader and Dr. Ernst \\-aldstein of New York have written about this. butt the joke (as I presume it to be) is not explained, no clue having come up. Nor has a Charley, alas. though I would warmly acknow edge the goodwill of \Ir. Moses Baritz, who intended to give me one. but was misled, as I have been. by a similarity of title, and found that his volume was Annesley's Standard Opera Glass, a quite serious work which is to be found in Charing Cross Road bookshops. The hook I burn for is by Fr. Charley, The New Opera Glass, printed (in English) at Leipzig about 1900.

17 January 1936 The GRA.11OP11O \ E 321 THE FUTURE OF SCREEN OPERA IN the October issue of THE GRAMOPHONE Mr. Roger I1' imbush carne forward with his provocative conclusion that the filming of opera had no future. The subject that he had under review (the story -value of " On \\ ings of Song," as expressed by the H.M.V. " Memories " record) certainly desen ed his contempt, and has, indeed, been the cause of continent in my own review in Film Weekly; but if he has seen the film in question he will ad nit, I think, that the disc dealt with its subject in an extremely unsatisfactory manner. 'I'he story, as told over the telephone, united my gasps to those of Mr. Roger Wimbush, but in it I see no signs of operatic films in general possessing no future. In view of the changing policies of studio executives and the changing preferences of the film -going public, the future for screen opera is as uncertain as it is for any other species of cinema entertainment, but the " no future " decision is quite incompatible with the feverish signing -up of operatic singers and the equally feverish purchase of the film rights of familiar operas-activities which are at the moment in extraordinary evidence in both Hollywood and England. The plans of the film studios are often prematurely announced, but as the withdrawal of one project is usually accompanied by the proposal of another, it is perhaps safe to mention Lily Pons, Grace Moore, Gladys Swarthout, Nino Martini, and Lawrence Tilibett (till from the Metropolitan Opera house of New York) as being among the many singers of the operatic class now suddenly engaged in the making of films, while Englan I has another contribution to offer in the s tape of a film version of Payl iacci, starring Richard Tauber (an assignment with which I do not personal y agree). From Berlin creeps the news that l3eniamino Gigli has been engaged for a new film, from Hollywood that Paramount have purchased the screen rights of Samson and Ilelilal, and from Nt w York that the Music Guild there is to sponsor a talkie -opera version of Faust, which is to be filmec in Technicolor. The screen rights of operas, in fact, are now at a value never before imagined, let alone realised ; Metro - Goldwyn -Mayer have recently spent 50,000 on the bulk purchase of operatic film rights alone, and it is said that mere permission to film l'agliacci cost the film company concerned a sum in the neighbourhood of 18,000. Are astute men of the film business likely to make these expensive preparations if screen opera promises no future? On the contrary, I personally fear that the filming of opera will, during the next year, be overstressed to its oun detriment; the actin ities are too feverish to be healthy, and will, I believe, be followed by the natural reaction of exhaustion which follows all fevers. But I sincerely believe that after this delirium, which seems to accompany all film " cycles," has been soothed, the filming of operatic subjects will take a calm and regular place in screen entertainment. Further proof of the future of this type of production was provided by the success of Grace Moore's new film, " On by W. JOHN ELTON -. Grace Moore Wings of Song." When leaving the Press shows at the Tivoli it was necessary to pass queues of eager people waiting, as early as in the morning, to snap their coins on to the brass plate of the box-office. Grace Moore's previous venture, " One Night of Love," which prominently featured excerpts from Carmen and Madam Butterfly, ran for fourteen weeks continuous y in one London theatre (the record for the year), enjoyed an overwhelming triumph in the provinces (and I do not mean " overwhelming " in any cheap journalistic sense), took over 41,500 in a mere two weeks at the Radio City Music Hall, New Fork, has travelled over practically the whole world, and now, with the public still unsatisfied, has had to be reissued. If this is small achievement for screen opera, then I hold that the success of Covent Garden is uegligihle. I am quite aware of the comparisons Miss Moore suffered while performing personally in London ; I am aware, too, of the purists' complaints that her films do not represent opera in its true sense. With this observation I agree. I am making no attempt to advance screen opera as a faultless entertainment for the students of opera in its true form ; I am defending the right of screen opera to exist as screen opera --a right which a great number of musicians, outside the field of THE GRAMOPHONE, seem anxious to deny it. It must be said, positively and firmly, that the filming of musical subjects is a distinct art which demands its own students, its own technicians, its own theorists, and, for the full comprehen- sion of the filmic as well as the musical qualities, its own critics ; and there is no doubt that the intricate mechanism of film -making, which somewhat surprisingly accompanies the filming of opera as much as the filming of anything else, is not fully understood by the people who are continually disagreeing with the interpretation of music on the screen. Faults there are, a great number of faults, but the fine films have a right to be acknowledged with the condemnation of the bad. The screen never topes and never wishes to represent opera in its orthodox form, and this fact is being continually evaded when musicians are in the process of debunking the cinema. Screen opera will have to lie a medium of entertainment in its own right, and to mo this has no horrors. The unimaginative and weakly produced musical film (of which I have been one of the severest critics), together with such unsuitable and misleading appendages as the titles " One Night of Love " and " Love Me For Ever " (the American name for " On Wings of Song "), will in time be forced off the scree Z by the personal outcries of the film -going public, which is a shade more intelligent than some people seem to imagine it (vide the reference in an October review in THE GRAMOPHONE to " this rubbish, which is best left to film fans devoid of musical taste "). The average citizen dislikes instruction when he expects entertainment. He likes to have his pills well sugared, and suggestions whispered instead of condemnations thundered. Any attempt to put opera in its true form on the screen would

18 322 The CRa.11OP11O \-R January 1936 therefore he disastrous as well as artistically foolish. Artists should strive to interest the members of the public in music ; they have no right to " learn " them. It is because of this that I welcome Miss Moore's films, in spite of the liberties taken, as magnificent examples of musical propaganda, however unconsciously applied that propaganda may be. I belong to that partieular hand of music -lovers which, in direct opposition to t he sect believing t hat, good -class music should be reserved for academists, is anxious to widen the appeal of an art which can give so much pleasure if its charm is once realised. I tun convinced that the " popular " prejudice against opera is larger due to the fact that few of the indifferent ones have made any real effort to listen to it, and I ant therefore heartily in agreement with the artistic adaptation of opera to the screen so that the enormous cinema -going public may become unconsciously interested in the beauties of better -c ass music, and thus encouraged to make, for their own pleasure, more serious studies. All this, of course, is quite beside the point raised by Mr. Roger \\'inthush, but it forms an essential part of any discussion centred on the lil ping of opera. Enormous strides in the cause of screen opera have already been taken. Knowing only too well the previous enema prejudices. I found it a truly amazing experience to watch a great building full of unassuming and oaeratically disinterested people sitting through a very large portion of Act I of La Bohé,ne (featured in " On Wings of Song "). not merely with patience, but with an obvious enjoyment and an emotion occasioned by the beauties of the opera and the art of Grace Moore and Michael Bartlett. Thus have the first steps been taken. From this point it is possible to make furl her experiments, and when such great men as Gigli (already mentioned) and Sir Thomas Beecham (who is conducting the accompaniments to the film of Mozart's life called " Whom the Gods Love ") surrender their art to the mercies of the film-makers. it means that people of great discrimination have faith in the future of screen music. The actual mechanics of film recording have, as yet. a long way to go before reaching perfection. but the principles involved will in timo allow a truth in reprodt ction even greater than that of the time err gramophone record. There are about five thousand cinemas in Great Britain alone ; during the run of an operatic picture, an enormous number of these are virtually converted into opera houses. To me the tilling of so many cinemas at such a tune, in comparison with the meagre number of houses throughout the country able to exploit true opera, can only mean that the screening of operatic subjects is succeeding in the distribution of masterly music to an extent which the true opera houses. although more faithfully in tradition, cannot challenge. The Contemporary Musician's Gramophone CASELLA'S SICILIANA E BURLESCA (1917) for Violin, Violoncello and Pianoforte (Continued front page 2I7, October issue) CASELLA'S music can perhaps he described as brilliant with an almost melodramatic intensity. like much Italian lakelaud scenery. Its moments of ly ricism are bright and shadowless. We, in 1?ngland, know the high-spirited Ciarawhich is in the repertory of the Vic-\\ ells Ballet- and little else. We should know more. and we ce tainly should have more recordings of Casella. 'The darker music of our own clime demands, especially on a wintry day. its antidote. I can imagine Debussy's Fétes providing such au antidote, and much of Casclla's music hence my plea for more of it. In its trio form the.siciliana e Burlesca has achieved a certain measure of popularity, but it actually started life as a work for flute and pianoforte (14114). The later arrangement is undoubtedly a more ingenious affair, a better balance and a greater sense of stability being attained by- the use of the three instruments than was possible in the earlier version where the flute had to contend with a rather overloaded pianoforte part. The musical content of the work is virtually unaltered ; it has mnetely been eclistributed and texturally made more pleasant to the ear. Yet Casella seems to have felt that he had produced something so fundamentally different from the 1414 version as to make it wort It while rededicating it! Score : Kicordi & Co. Record : One 1.2 -inch Italian Columbia. Recording : On an electrical machine, excellent : otherwise moderate. I. The siciliana becomes, in Casella's hands. an eloquent and even ((ramal Ic thing. Those ctalit ies, especially rhythani', which we expect to find in such a form ate all there. but lifted to a higher plane, ennobled. as it were. I should say it ti as a very fine example of a musician's art. The opening theme of the Siciliana is the mainspring of the whole work, all the materia for both the Siciliana and Burlescu being ultimately derived from it,. Here it is-its tonality rendered slightly ambiguous by the intrusion of the G flat-played very softly by the pianoforte in double octaves : Andantino languido e dolce The feeling, at first. is of a barcarolle rather than a siciliana. A different version of the theme is then played by violin and 'cello in octaves. and this tinte harmonised. '['hese two versions of the theme for keyboard and for strings- emain peculiar to the instruments for which they were originally conceived, and when repeated always take the same order of precedence. There follows an impassioned section. based on an extension of bit 2 of the melody. It conies to nothing. however. and in place of a climax we get a downward scale -passage for unaccompanied violin, ending in a prolonged trill and productive of a curious little halting phrase (marked capriceioso), which at the tima' seems of no part icular importance but which we later discover to be the material out of which the Coe a is formed. After t his false start 'cello and vio i 1, over a syncopated accompaniment for pianoforte, commence once more to build up a climax. and this time they really achieve it.. Casella makes of his theme a truly Protean thing. yieldintz a rich and fanciful development, and full of musicianly cleyice.s which delight the eve and ear. The exquisite grading of clvnarnics in this piece should also be noted. After a repetition of' t he two original ve lions of the theme (the strings muted this tinte) an nutractite six -bar Coda leads straight into the Rurlesrrc. 2. '['his is a plain -wailing and very gay rondo. The Iteraldings and repetitions of the themes have just that appositeness which we find in a really good triolet. Note that the opening tune is very subtly derived from an important pianoforte passage four bit's before (17). which. in its turn, is quite recognisably derived f our the original Siciliana theme. Then close your score and give yourself up to the spirit of impudent virtuosity which informs the final pages of this charming work. TERP UNDER.

19 ragarisiwane January 1936 The GR. 1 MOP HON E V A Happy New Year ' ellf /11.111*(e t / ca n. That is the usual January wish-a universal expression of goodwill and hope. Perfect musical reproduction is a great contributing factor to real unalloyed happiness. The Rimington Reproducer will give you, either from records or by wireless, a quality of music hitherto unknown. Read these two expressions of opinion: " I have often wished to offer you my sincere congratulations " Anything would be inadequate to express how much on having produced a Radiogram of such superlative quality pleasure it has given me since I had it. As you know, I had as the instrument you supplied to mc. Without hesitation I experimented with a number of gramophones before, and some would pronounce it to be absolutely unique in its qualities and of them were very good, but it was not till I heard your repro - without compeer in the radio world... in testing the ducer that I realised you had at last got the only one which instrument out with records that present the utmost difficulty satisfied me. to most commercial gramophones-recordings which generally speaking become blurred in the reproduction so that not only is From a musical point of view it is absolutely perfect in balance lost but the output becomes confused and muddy, balance and tone and I have proved this to myself by getting the instrument handled the recordings so perfectly that every musical friends-some of them professional musicians-to hear instrument, every part, was heard separately and distinctly, it, all of them, without exception, have been wildly enthusiastic just as though is a were in the concert hall itself.... I am not about it. exaggerating when I say that your instrument for quality and tone, for absolute realism, for fidelity and purity leave all others I have ever heard far behind.... I can find no words adequate " Incidentally for the first time I have had enormous pleasure to a description of your marvellous instrument nor sufficient from listening to the wireless. I never thought this possible, to express my sheer delight and pleasure in it. It is, as my as I have been much prejudiced against radio, owing-i friends have said, as though the speaker or the artist was just realise now-to the fact that I had never heard a radio receiver hiding behind the baffle board itself.... ' which did not distort or spoil the music by extraneous noises." -- - i,, "t-s\ 1 - Fr. I Y V v.r V 1 l,j ' I!1 1 \,a.4z.,. 1 detailed catalogue will be sent to you post free on request 110 RECORD IS EVER REMINGTON VAN VJ ck 122 Hours : TOUCHED BY US WITH 42/3 CRANBOURN STREET. " 9.30 a.m. to 7 p.m. LONDON.WC.2 A METAL NEEDLE Thursday i p.m. (,l,..t oppodm the Hippodromes) Gerrard /171 B

20 VI The GRAMOPHONE January 1936 ARTUR SCHNABEL (Pianist) anti the B.B.C. Symphony Orchestra (Conductor Adrian Book) Concerto in B Flat Major (B dur), Op. 83 (Brahms) Complete on 12 sides. Album No DB27OI 6/- each. Automatic "couplings DBB002 The first widespread recognition in this country of Schnabel's genius was at the first performance he gave of Brahms' B Flat Pianoforte Concerto at a concert of the Royal Philharmonic Society. London had never heard a performance of such transcendental beauty, such vividness and purity of imagination, such ravishing tone, such perfect rhythm. Since it was known that Schnabel had signed an extensive contract with " His Master's Voice," we have had thousands of requests that he should record this masterpiece, and now at last we have pleasure in publishing these records. lr VIENNA PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA Conducted by Bruno Walter. Siegfried Idyll-Pts. 1-4 (Wagner) 0B2634-DB2635 6/. each. This heavenly music was a birthday (lift from Wagner to his wife. On Christmas morning, 1870, as she lay with their infant son, Siegfried, Wagner and his little orchestra played this surprise serenade. It is a supreme test of both orchestra and conductor to preserve its fragrance, and these records give an ideal performance.,-y HS wiii / NortSI HCH 4VtldmEITAL M11 - ELEANOR POWELL sings her own film songs. With Tommy Dorsey and His Orchestra. (Tap Dancing by Eleanor Powell) You are my lucky star I've got a feelin' you're fool i n' (Both from the Film; "Broadway Melody of 1936 ") B8396 2/6 RENARA (Pianist) "Two for To -night" Piano Medley, Pts. I and 2. BD303 1/6 BILLY MERSON (Comedian) (With Orchestra) Billy Merson Medley - Pts. I and 2-Intro : Prairie life for me; Spaniard that blighted my life; Desdemonia; The Lighthouse Keeper and Photo of the girl I left behind me; Senora; The good ship Yacki Hicki Doola; The Gay Cavalier. B0321 1/6 WEBSTER BCOTH (Tenor) (With Orchestra) Pale Moon The world is mine tonight B /6 "His Master's Voice." Clerkenteell Road. London, E.C.I. DEREK OLDHAM sings his own film songs. Roadway of Romance (Film: " Charing Cross Road ") Orchids to my Lady B8394 2/6 BELLE BAKER sings her own film songs. Roadway of Romance (Film: Charing Cross Road ") (With Violin, 'Cello and Piano) Mrs. Goldberg's Bridge Party B D 320 1/6 GEORGE SCOTT- WOOD (Plano - Accordion) With Guitar and Drums Bolero (Ravel) La Paloma (Yrodier) BD319 I/b THE VAGABOND LOVER B.B.C. Mystery Singer. As long as our hearts are young Just a Vagabond Lover BD3I8 1/6 EVERETT MARSHALL sings his own film songs. Mine alone Silver Wings (Both from Film : " I Lire for You ") B /6 LONDON PALLADIUM ORCHESTRA Conducted by Richard Crean Childhood Memories - Pts. I and 2 (arr. Somers B8392 2/6 r r - ALFREDO AND HIS ORCHESTRA Magyar Melodies (Vilmos, arr. Piercy) Wedding Dance Waltz (Lincke) B8400 2/6 SWING MUSIC Series ADRIAN ROLLINI AND HIS TAP ROOM GANG Jazz o' Jazz-F.T. (V.R.) Nagasaki-F.T. (V.R.) B8397 2/6 Pt.... yr.:,.-p. a:

21 January 1936 The GRAMOPHONE VII ries:., N4HE NE WISSU ALFRED CORTOT (Pianist) Scenes from Childhood, Op. IS-, (Schumann) No. I. Of foreign lands and peoples ; No. 2 Strange story; No. 3. Playing" Tag"; No. 4. Child's petition; No. S. Quite Happy No. 6. Important event; No. 7. Revery; No. 8. At the Fireside. DB2581 6( - No. 9. Knight of the Hobby Horse. No. 10. Almost too severe; No. I I. Frightening. No. 12. Child falling asleep; No. 13. The Poet speaks DB RICHARD CROOKS (Tenor) Mother Machree Love's Old Sweet Song II 7 r With Orchestra) DA Two notable additions to Crooks' wonderful recordings of favourite ballads. In these simple melodies his glorious voice reveals the reason of their undying popularity. EUGENE ORMANDY and the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra Verklarte Nacht, Op. 4 (Schonberg) (Complete on 8 sides) Album No DB2439-DB2442 6/ -each Automatic couplings DB ORCHESTRE DE LA SOCIETE DES CONCERTS DU CONSERVATOIRE (Conducted by Piero Coppola) Iberia (Debussy) Par les rues et par les chemins Les parfums de la nult Le Matin d'un jour de fete Soirée dans grenade (Debussy. arch. Coppola) DB /- each (Automatic couplings DB ) RECORD CF THE MONTH. RHAPSODY IN BLUE BOSTON ORCHESTRA Conducted by Arthur Fiedler. At the Piano: J. M. Sanroma Rhapsody in Blue-Pts. I and 2 (Gershwin) C2806 4/. Rhapsody in Blue-Pt. 3. Strike up the Band (from " Strike up the Band ") (Gershwin) C2807 4/. Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue was the first serious attempt to give modem (American) syncopation a symphonic form. This, the first complete recording, is on the most ambitious scale, with a full symphony orchestra and a pianist of virtuoso rank. REC ods;:at Ifi elést N ITS GREÁTESi gpn S.. MAREK WEBER AND HIS _ ORCHESTRA "Cloches de Corneville" -Waltz "Tales from the Orient" -Waltz C2810 4/- SWING MUSIC Series B ENNY GOODMAN AND HIS ORCHESTRA Dear old Southland-F.T. Blue Skies-F.T. B8398 2/6 J JACK HYLTON'S ORCHESTRA School -Boy Howlers, Pts. I and 2-Comedy F.T. (V.R.) BD5005 1/6 When the Guardsman started crooning on parade -F.T. (V.R.) Everything stops for tea-f.t. (V.R.) (From Film: "Come out of the Pantry") BDS006 1/6 ENRIC MADRIGUERA AND HIS ORCHESTRA I found a dream-f.t. (V.R.) (From Film: "Red -heads on Parade") When the leaves bid the trees goodbye-f T. (V.R.) BD5300 1/6 PAUL WHITEMAN AND HIS ORCHESTRA playing their hits from the film "Thanks a Million." Sugar Plum-F.T. (V.R.) Thanks a Million-F.T.(V.R.) BD500I 1/6 JACK JACKSON AND HIS ORCHESTRA At the Dorchester Hotel, London. Sailing home with In a the tide-w. (V.R.) little English Inn - F.T. (V.R.) BD5009 1/6 Gypsy Violin - F.T (V.R.) Some other time - F.T. (V.R.) /6 NEW MAYFAIR DANCE ORCHESTRA Honey -coloured Moon - Slow F.T. (V.R.) Music hath charms-ft. (V.R.) (Both from Film : " Music hath charms") BDS002 1/6 Don't stand in the doorway -F.T. (V.R.) The never to be forgotten Melody-F.T. (V.R.) (Both from "Seeing Stars") BD RAY NOBLE AND HIS ORCHESTRA 'Way down yonder in New Orleans-FT. St. Louis Blues-FT. (V.R. by Al Bowlly) B DS0o4 1/6 RECORDS I N STRICT DANCE TIME JOE LOSS AND HIS ORCHESTRA When Budapest was young -Slow F.T. (V.R.) Moonlight on the Prairie- W. (From Film: "Moonlight on the Prairie") BD5007 1/6 Star -dust covered bundle - Slow F.T. (V.R.) My shadow's where my sweetheart used to be- F.T. (V.R.) 8D5008 I/6 For you, Madonna-Slow F.T. (V.R.) The General's fast asleep- F.T. (Mid-way Rhythm) (V.R.) BD294 I/6 B2

22 vttt The GRAJIOPIIO \'E January 1936 for 1936 SINCE the earliest days of its inception it has been the object of this firm to produce gramophones and radio -gramophones that shall appeal to those who have a discriminating taste in music. Every design has been conceived to fulfil the conditions demanded by critical people. We have set out to make radio receivers and radio - gramophones which shall give the highest possible quality of reproduction, at a volume adequate for any ordinary room, and which will continue to give this service for a very long period with the minimum of maintenance cost. DAVEY Radio has met with the most cordial reception by musical people, many of whom had previously felt that mechanical reproduction could never satisfy. Dame Ethel Smyth uses Davey Radio and so does Mr. Basil Maine, the noted critic. He said that " not only is Davey Radio handsome in appearance, but very much so in performance. Especially remarkable is its fidelity to pianoforte tone. I am very much impressed, too, by the clarity and balance of all the broadcast orchestral music to which I have listened since the set was fixed about a week ago. By judicious selection and programmes I am deriving great pleasure from broadcasting, whereas in former days I approached it, so far as music was con- cerned, with considerable misgiving. I congratulate you heartily on the splendid results of your research knowledge and good taste..." Davey Radio gramophones are used for music teaching and appreciation in schools and colleges-no better tribute could be paid to their quality of reproduction and reliability in use. E.M.G. Hand -made Gramophones cater for every requirement in electrical reproduction, including instruments for churches. Send for full details and reduced prices of DAVEY RADIO No gift could be more welcome to the music -lover than a few wellchosen records. But there is always the risk of duplication and, possibly, misjudgment of his tastes. Record Cheques provide a happy solution, for the choice is left to the recipient. Use Record Cheques for all present - making occasions. Cheques for any sum may be obtained immediately and cashed by post or personally at II Grape Street. When giving Record Cheques, you give double value to your friends- records they choose themselves and the benefit of the E.M.G. service. ZLir fl ecg(`lgl 0l 711,1,txkc We have the pleasure to announce new titles in this most interesting series of exclusive records. They are two Mozart Sonatas for Violins, 'Cello and Organ (the organ being a true example of the instrument of the period), a Core lli and a Vivaldi sonata, both scored for two violins, viola da gamba and harpsichord. Send for further details of these unique records if you are interested in the treasures left by the great composers and which could never be recorded and made available to music - lovers except by an enterprise such as the Treasury of Music Series sponsored by this Company. E.M.G. TELEPHONETEMPLE BAR GRAPE STREET IS JUST BEHIND THE PRINCES THEATRE /i

23 January 1936 The GRAMOPHONE 323 SECOND REVIEWS BEETHOVEN SYMPHONIES THE FIFTH Parlophone. State Opera Orchestra, Berlin (Rosenstock). E Decca. Queen's Hall Orchestra (Wood). K H.M.V. Vienna Philharmonic (Schalk). C London Philharmonic Orchestra (Koussevitzky). DB Columbia. London Philharmonic Orchestra (Weingartner). DX It is a little difficult to know how to make these Second Reviews most useful. Impossible for the Editor to afford space to go over in detail every " recording " and every- " interpretation," whether or not these were reported upon fully in the First Reviews. I cannot even presume that everyone has treasured up all the jottings and tittlings of the past. Perhaps it seems best, in general, not to worry about the past, but to give as clear a comparative indication as I can about the works now before me. I would gently reiterate, as a text for all Second Reviews, my conviction that " the best " is almost always a conception as impracticable as it is unphilosophical. Music being, in the minds of most of us, so dependent upon " interpretation " (you don't, happily, need an " interpreter " to get between you and a book or a picture, a temple or a statue), it seems the more important to adopt towards this big element an attitude as philosophical as possible ; and the beginnings of the mundanity of that philosophy appear (alas for those who would remove themselves above earthly things to commune with pure art!) to lie deeply, ineradicably imbedded in the primeval mud, and to be expressed by some such phrase as " One man's meat is another man's poison "-whether the dish be flavoured with the vagaries of tempo or varieties of timbre ; with " romantic recording " or with the severities of " music at first ear " ; or the even deeper dubieties of " the music as the composer conceived it." When we have removed several old recordings, one or two remarkably good (but it has been considered best to stick to those now in the British catalogues), we have still five Fifths left. Dear me! How often must I have prattled of the work-though I did not review quite all the recordings. It can stand any amount of that, I think, being deep-rooted in glory. Dates do not count very heavily, the earliest of the batch being but this is, of course, almost ancient, as recording goes. Price must always be important to those who, like me, wish to command many records, but cannot command a purse of the right length. From Koussevitzky's 30s. to Wood's 10s. is a big step. I take the opportunity to emphasise that the use of the word " cheap " does not connote " and nasty." When I say a thing is cheap, I am pointing out a bargain. The remarks accompanying that adjective supply all the comment in my mind : I do not hold back any criticism that I consider justified, whether good or bad ; and as one who sometimes has to buy records, I am as anxious as anybody for bargains. The other recordings are all 16s. As to whether a cheap recording is as good as a more expensive one, that is bound to be a matter of choice. I have known it to be as good. Those who can hear both will choose for themselves ; those who cannot (and I know this means a good many) will, I believe, always get sufficient from a criticism to decide whether the work is good enough for them : more than that nobody can expect ; for even if one says that, putting price out of consideration, one considers set A better than set B (and that does not mean that other critics would necessarily agree), so many factors, including one's instrument, are involved in the decision that there is, I am aware, often sufficient room for a customer to turn round and say, after buying the more expensive set and then hearing the other, perhaps in a friend's possession : " Well, I don't think there is x -shillings' worth of difference: I wish now I had bought the cheaper set." Nobody can legislate for others in this matter of price, either considered purely as what one can afford, or as value -for-money. What I may consider an adequate set may seem inadequate to others, and vice versa ; though I suppose that a fair number of those who care to read my advice are likely to accept it, if I give reasons for believing a performance to be inadequate. But difficulty arises when only part of it is, or when a conductor mars a reading by what I think excesses in. say, one movement. How far, then, is the performance as a whole inadequate? That I cannot decide for anybody, try as I will. Often, the best available set would be made up of, say, A's finely built-up first and last movements, B's delicious scherzo, and C's splendidly deep slow movement. If ever the companies soar clean above even Connoisseur level, and set up what I suppose they can call the Idealists' Catalogue, we may be able to put aside this desire, which I not infrequently feel, for a set made up of such differently -conducted movements; or (since that would mean the sacrifice of unity) to hear, at a particular time, one movement, conducted by the man I think best for that section of the work. To own more than one set is for most of us out of the question. It might be interesting to have the s otes of a number of well -experienced listeners as to how their ideal performance of certain works might thus be made up. My first inclination is to say that if the strings sounded sweeter I should plump for Columbia, were an " under 1 " set demanded, because I think W'eingartner's style so good and the recording worthy. As to the strings, it is well known that for a period I had to say they didn't please me; but as to this, I ask you to remember P. W.'s guidance. When periodically I go out to his mansion and listen to all sorts of performances on his gramophone -fit -for-heroic -records-to - live -on, it is clear that some discs contain much more than average machines can bring out of them. I cannot too steadily insist that to the art of the professional musician, in this branch of criticism, needs to be added that of the expert in the subtleties of adequate reproduction. In the latter work. I have never pretended to be expert, and any small things I know have been learned from P. W. Disregarding price, I have to leave Koussevitzky with a doubt whether he is at his best in the Fifth, and whether the recording is either. But for weight and sonority it seems unlikely that we can expect anything better, or many recordings so good. This is where the swings and roundabouts begin! If Schalk sounds a little small (not thin), Koussevítzky is apt to be rhythmically a bit ponderous; to over -dramatise. Schalk perhaps under -dramatises. I am always inclined to be on the side of those who leave something to one's imagination. It is, obviously, difficult to convey to others the point at which one thinks this weakens into not doing enough for the composer. Reading in Dame Ethel Smyth's latest book an impression of Koussevitzky's difficulty in working

24 321 The GRA.iMOPIIONE January 1936 up English players to the excitement he wanted, I am inclined to modify the suggestion in December 1934, that he " keeps too cool." One can only. of course, speak as one finds : but it is well to beware of reading into the conductor's (as into the composer's) mind ideas that may not have been there. (By the way, a friend mentions that Furtwángler, as well as Kous.sel itzky, took nine sides to t he Fifth, in a good recording not now in our lists.) Rosenstock 's handicapped chiefly by the date, since when recording has moved on. Much good sense here. and sound shaping. I he roughness in the Weingartner is in the tone only. Nobody builds better. I don't think Wood's way, though often admirable, quite so satisfying. The two come about even, in the slow movement (where Koussevitzky, you may remembe, spoilt himself by being so deathly slow). Schalk is beautifully smooth, though with a shade of rhythmic looseness. In the point of interpretation, then, averaging the four movements, I think there is little between \Veingartner and Schalk. with \\ ood following close. Tonalb, Koussevitzky must have it. as to volume. As to tone -shading, \\ ood drops behind, rather, and Schalk and \Veingartner come up that is, in the matter of what I hear them doing to the phrasing, that ital element (see October 1933, p col. 2, as to \Veingartner's). My own interest lies there more than anywhere else : I can supply plenty of personal excitement. There is a lot of truth in David Stanley Smith's remark that " technical subtlety is the prime quality of great music." The conductor who lets the composer's subtlety speak for itself, through intelligent phrasing (using the word in its widest sense and it means a lot). is the man for my money. But I think it fair to say that one probably has to know the music very well indeed in order to find the fullest satisfaction in this aspect of listening ; and that, like many of the subtle things in music, I find people have to grow to it, slowly. THE SEVENTH Columbia. Royal Philharmonic Orchestra (Weingartner). L Parlophone. Berlin State Orchestra (Knappertshusch). E H.M.V. Philadelphia (Stokowski). 1) \\'e have always felt the folkv nature of themes in this work. In the American Musical Quarterly for June 1935, Mr. James Travis expounded these Celtic elements. A briefer summing-up is accessible in Dr. Harvey Grace's Listener article of September 11th. I am not one of those who that think folkiness has been, or ought to be, an enormously ant importelement in great art. The whole folky business, to my mind, is easily overdone, when the tunes are taken out of their context. The Celtic tunes in the Seventh are not \ ery good tunes, and that is tut e of a lot of folk airs. I knot and enjoy the good ones, as well as t 1w next man; some are of them among the world's best melodies, and when the songs go deep, they are as clearly masterpieces as the art greatest songs ; but " movements " have a sad way of pushing forward the poorer stuff as well as the fine, and there are always people ready to cash in on any movement, without bothering to discriminate (if they are able to do so). Some composers have tiresomely overworked folkiness, too. won't It make the Seventh better or worse, wherever its are tunes found to come from. Beethoven arranged (as, I fear, a good deal of a hack -job) some Scots and Irish airs for a For publisher. the finale of the Seventh he used a theme froth his piano accompaniment to Nora Creina, but weakened its sixth -jump, which in the original is to an E flat (in the key of F)-a characteristic noto of the " mode." Mr. Travis also suggests that the jumping rhythms ín the first movement were from taken the Irish airs, and that the scherzo has an Irish -jig gait (cf. Garyone-or. as we here more commonly call it, Garry Owen), with its run down the scale. Another air may have started the theme of the slow movement. Beethoven may not have thought much about it : we cannot know, as a rule, how a composer works. I think Mr. Travis puts a value rather too high upon the connection between folk airs and the symphony : and the Seventh is not my ideal of the greatest Beethoven ; hut these sidelights are always interesting. Again we bear in mind the teachings of P. \l. regarding records that on a small instrument may seem to be rather fierce, and that, on an instrument of the right calibre, come into proportion. Also, the charms of \Veingartner's Beethoven can be taken as read. If even on my big external -homer the Philadelphia tone appears at times fierce, that must be mentioned, not least because I think one can easily overdo the masterful (external) touch in Beethoven. The masterfulness is within. The Parlophone is apt to he a little muddy in softer levels, and not so full-bodied in the louder, as the others. The reading is clear and IN ise. In the second movement, Weingartner takes a less heavy pace than Stokowski. though his tone -quality and Knappertshusch's are less impressive. If something of the consolation of the succeeding music he lost, there is clear gain in time I'hily's distinguished volume and colour, and I think this orchestra's depiction of this curious movement would take a cleat of beating. In the next movement Weingartner gets the fleeting effect best. It is not, as I have often suggested, a question of speed, but of shading and all that makes up the complex beauty of phrasing. Knappertsbusch is a bit stodgy here, lacking \Veingartner's finesse. For the finale, I suppose everybody will like the Phily's effect of "all hands on deck." \Veingartner conser\ es his em rgies more subtly. but perhaps the robuster tone is best (though the Phily strings here get rumbustious). So once again there is a choice of interpretations, with my vote leaning towards \Veingartner for subtlety, and the Phily discs for fullness. Addendum. Brahms Symphony 3. Vienna Philharmonic (Krauss). H.Itl.\. C In the small number of recordings of the Third this, «hich was not accessible when the others were being heard, is notable. There is much fine -ham ed treatment, some delicate wood -u ind, and sustained pleasure in the easy control. I think the Vienna Orchestra has not quite the ideal recording chamber, for the strings, when loud, nearly always sound a little less fine than the wind. The fine -handedness is apt to become almost-perhaps not quite-finicking phraseology, as in the early part of the slow movement; but this is one of those remarks to which, were it not monotonous to keep repeating the phrase, I would add : " to nay mind "; imply ing that I don't think such an element would annoy most people. The third movement is very gracious. hom*ogeneous and judiciously built, and the finale a little bare, at full power. If there seems in this reading of the work rather more care and calculation than poetry, that, again, may be an impression that would tend to disappear on living with the records, which are a welcome addition to our store of Plum Label symphonies. W. R. A. Just Published MUSIC FOR THE FILMS By LEONID SABANEEV, Member.of the Russian State Academy of Art Sciences Translated by S.W. Pring This book provides valuable information on up-to-date methods of preparing and recording a musical accompaniment. The technicalities of sound -film production are clearly explained. All composers, conductors, and students of film technique should read this book. 136 pages. 6s. net. PITMAN, PARKER ST., KINGSWAY, W.C.2

25 January 1936 The GRAMOPHONE 325 ANALYTICAL NOTES AND FIRST REVIEWS [Those marked with an asterisk () are additions to the H.M.V. Connoisseur Catalogue or Columbia Collector's List.] HIS MASTER'S VOICE ORCHESTRAL Schnabel and B.B.C. Orchestra (Boult) : Second Piano Concerto' in B flat, Op. 83 (Brahms). II.M.V. DB (12in.' :36s.). Brahms played in the first performance of this, in Its spirit was shaped by a spring visit to Italy and the ripening sense of the year's progress in April and May. It is full of grand stimulating thoughts. Schnabel well assesses its stature, though his tono is not always very rich. There is something rather dry in him. The confiding way in which the first theme is given out by the horn is very attractive. Then the piano leaps to it with youthful zest-yet with the strengthening influence of age; in some of those chord progressions (e.g., bars 19-22) I seem to feel Beethoven's hand. A gracious following theme (1 ins.) is immediately succeeded by strong leaps, which are a fine influence in the movement. Some of the best of the Brahms-German spirit is in the last half -inch of side 1 and the first half -inch of side 2. How ripe it all is! An inch in (side 2) is a moment of musing on the side 1 (1 jt ins.) theme. The orchestra (end of sido 2) strikes in with this and the first idea, after the piano has worked tip a good deal. We note how keen is the effect of these proportionings, and how, for instance (to take another side), at the start of side 3, the orchestral jumps against the piano's arpeggios make both salient : the piano is not merely filling in. Though the development now becomes rather more obviously organised. the mos ement has been growing right from the word " Go! " That is true growth-no superfluous (lash, no parading of material without its at once working into the body's build, like perfectl chosen food. \Ve can feel, towards the end of side 3, the return to the simplifications of the opening ideas. Schnabel's honest clarity is welcome, though he does not perhaps give us very much more. The Scherzo is marked "appassionato." I do not strongly feel that here. It is not hectic music, but strong, and rather inward than external. The opening section is repeated. as marked. On the whole, I like Schnabel here, for not all players mark the lines so firmly. early on side 6 the Trio begins, with a broadening out. There is. soon after this, one of those movements reminding us of the eternal Brahms of the symphonies (just before the piano so o). The large, open speech of this section is very genially conveyed. The Andante (on three sides, 7-9) is a bigger test. Its opening has one of the composer's beautiful, subtle combinations-three beats on top. and tsto below (six crotchets in the bar : two threes and three twos). The theme's sober comfort is rightly felt, its tender, sensitive end particularly. The change to the arabesques of side 8 is striking, but ornateness never lasts long : Brahms did not want mere decoration, or any show. The middle section (mid side 8) brings us again to the delicate sensibility of Brahms at his best. It is astonishing that the composer can ever have got the name of a rough - riding, heavy writer. All the players are finely in the spirit here. The finale is not quite Schnabel's meat. We want more piquancy. He is apt to be too deliberate in step and accent. He is a bit lumpish at the second theme, just before the middle of side 10, and near the end of side 11 there is an unexpected moment when he rushes a bar-a thing he is inclined at Crites to do, and a bad trick. Rubinstein scored in the finale, though Schnabel is bett. r, to my mind, in the rest of the work. He lacks the spirit to gambol. The Hungarian gipsy gets little look in. This apart, the recording is to be welcomed as a solid, we I -graced piece of work. *Minneapolis Orchestra (Ormandy) : Verklárte Nacht (Transfigured Night) (Schonberg). H.M.\. DB (l2in., 24s.). Fear not-if, and there remain to whom Schonberg's is a " name of fear, Unpleasing to the music lover's ear." For this is early romantic Schonberg. before his muse was sickbed o'er with the pale cast of theory. Tristan had a hand in Transfigured [or Resplendent] Night, which was written at first (1899) as a sextet. It is based on a poem by Dehmel. \\ ithout knowing closely the poet's attitude to life, one can only sketch the background-a woman's confession to her lover of her betrayal of his faith, and his comforting her : this against the glorious night scene in the moonlit wood. So we may think broadly of (a) the night ; (b) the confession, with its hints of passion and regret ; (c) the comfort of the man's argument and reassurance, rising to passion in the end- the resplendent night has brought light to their hearts as well as their eyes ; and (d) the mood of peace. If I quote a few lines written many years ago by one " K.K.," a former scribbler for this journal (now long forgotten), I hope his shade will pardon me : and I don't much care if it doesn't. These were written for the N.G.S., whose pioneering is too often forgotten. The first, drooping, phrase may be the woman's regretful voice. At about 18 ins. another voice (viola) is heard. Side 2 has another short theme ('cello). This, marked as expressing grief. is much used, is developed on this side, and is much used later. Here we may feel the woman's fears and hopes. On side 3, 11- ins., a wilder form of the Grief theme is heard, and broken interjections. The woman's emotion is fully freed. On side 4 we may imagine the end of her confession and her heaviness. The man speaks (side 5) " intimately, very softly and tenderly" in comfort and confidence. Soon an accompanying figure suggests that of Grief, reversed. New hope springs up (si. le 6) in a fresh theme. The love -song is fully developed in the last two sides, tl e man's and woman's themes joined (side 7, 21 ins.)-his (second) theme below hers. \Ve picture them, in joy and peace, going their way through the g orious night. The larger body of strings is certainly the most effective way of hearing the work. Those who do not tire of sentiment expressed in Wagnerian terms-but with a strongly personal application and evocative Sensibility-will enjoy this highly satisfactory recording. Vienna Philharmonic (Walter): Siegfried Idyll (Wagner). BMA'. D (12in., 12s.). Score : Philharmonia and Eulenburg. It seems only the other day that Walter was conducting the best recorded performance I remember of this lovely Christmas present that V1 agner made for Cosima, to celebrate the h irth of their son Siegfried (1870). Here is not the resounding Wagner of the Ring, but the singer of homely things. Perhaps there is more " programme " in the music than we know. But nothing is required to glorify its beauty. \Ve remember how, on Christmas Day, a little band of musicians who had rehearsed in secret came to the villa and performed the Idyll on the stairs, amakening Cosima, to schom, after the

26 326 The CR9 110P11OXE January 1936 performance, Wagner presented the beautifully written score..most of the themes are from Siegfried, but some were intended for a quartet, never written. The opening theme is first heard completely at bars 29, 30. This permeates the music. How sweetly the instruments enter-first strings alone. then flute (13 ins.), horn supporting. with oboe soon after. clarinet, and the rest of the little band. which in all consisted of eight strings. five wood -wind and three brass. It is the flute which, in the descending figure. first introduces the Slumber motive of Briinnhilde. Side 2 brings the Cradle Song. the only theme which is not the composer's own. Not far from the end of this side is more music from the closing scene of Siegfried (which I remember Mr. Newman suggested as probably forming part of the quartet). The working up of this. on side 3, shows what can be done, without monotony, when the uplifting wings of the spirit are strong. 1t, I á ins. on side 3 comes again some Siegfried music. and the bird warbling --more of it, before the side ends. I have heard greater delicacy in the varied repetition of motives-this hand seems a trifle stiff there : but the M hole is soft as silk and smooth as velvet, and the bigger tone is chastely proportioned to the gentler. *Paris Société des Concerts du Conservatoire Orchestra (Coppola): Iberia, and Soirée dans Granade (Debussy). H.M (12in., 18s.). Iberia (1910) is one of the three items in the set of Images for orchestra (to be distinguished from the other sets, for piano). The dwellers by time Ebro (the Latins called the district Hispania, hence Spain) were the earliest known people of south-western lurope. Now the Basques represent them. Ravel, as well as Debussy, has given us music about this peninsula. Debussy's Iberia is in three mo\ ements : Par les rues et par les chenins (two sides). Les parfurns de la nuit (two), and Le Harlin d'un jour de féte (one side). The Soirée fills the last side. Fragments of song. snatches of characteristic rhythms, castanets, and opulent colour, make up the picture of the city's folk going about the'r work and recreation. Such queer little episodes as that about an inch from the end of side I (low melody and high accompaniment) point to the Eastern origins of the people. The colour is a delight ; but the work may reasonably, he criticised as lacking (except in this movement) much idea beyond that. Some might think that the second. too much of an apparatus -piece. slips over the edge into the luxuriance of decadence : but it is wonderful to hear how Debussy brings it off. It is handsomely done, though I think our wood -wind tone, at its hest, can ho better. The festival march and swagger of the finale, with fiddles held under the arm, like guitars, is gay. Pretty cross -rhythms diversify the progress. A bit of fascinating fantasy. The last side contains a piano piece arranged by Coppo a-one of the three Estanepes of This contains a more clearly marked though rat her ordinary tune. The playing is refined and rich. and, with the little reservation above, the discs may be commended to those who enjoy Debussy 's languorous evocat ions. COLUMBIA Busch Chamber Players, conducted by Adolf Busch : The Six Brandenburg Concertos (Bach). In two volumes, LX and LX (12in., 49s. each). Scores: 2, 3, 4, 5, Philharmonic ; all six. Euulenhurg. Vol. I, Nos. 1, 2 and 4 ; Vol. II, Nos. 3, 5 and 6. No. I-three discs (with fill -up) ; No. 2-two ;No. 4-two ; No. 3 one ; No. 5-three ; No. 6-three. As the accompanying leaflet points out, it is convenient to have all the six Brandenburgs recorded under one control. In that way the provenance of these experiments of Bach's may be appreciated : the high successes, ant the movements in which there is not so much attraction. The chief attractions, to my mind, are the varying combinations of the orchestra. and the working out of motives. It was not to be expected that Bach should go further, and experiment with orchestral colour as Mozart did in opera. F:very man to his job : Bach had quite enough to do in the shaping of form. In Adolf Busch we have an admirably classically -minded violinist, whose style I have always appreciated. The first soloists are Busch. Bothwell (oboe), Brain and Bradley (horns). The notes give all the information needed. but those who like to supplement it might read in Parry's Bach (Putnam). The piano, not the harpsichord. is used. I wonder if any purist will object? I don't. for I am not fond of the harpsichord. save when for a few moments, by a player like Laudowska, we are rapt in a curious pleasure that no other keyboard instrument gives. The chief danger in playing these works is that of falling into a jog -trot style which emphasizes the somct Imes only too obvious jog -trot tery of.1. S. B. This orchestra. though it does jog in No. I a hit more than I should let it.. is not tiresome, for its pointing gives pleasure, while the level of simplicity is quietly maintained. It is in movements such as the second. with its striking sharp discords and its pathos. that the deeper Bach is found. One matter I like in these recordings is that the chamber aspect of the music is clear, and the counterpoints stand out without being thrust at us, bringing out fuller values than usual of Rack's experiments. Perhaps Busch is a little reticent. and his tone sometimes sloes not tell very surely, butt one can feel what he is aiming at. 'There would he no harm in a little more big-wig-ishness in a movement like No. 4 of the First : this has the good old spirit of eighteenth -century grandeur, with which Handel made us more familiar than Bach. There is some p etty work in the little suite of dances on sides 4 and 5. Side ti contains a Siciliano (which is not part of the 13randenbur;gs), played by Busch and Serkin. This is a slow-paced, meditative movement. In No. 2. Messrs. Eskdale and Moyse play the trumpet and flute. the oboe and violin (played as before) being the other solo instruments. Mr. Eskdale has a gay time in the first and last movements. and it is pretty to see how he tempers his tone to the small chamber dimension. I doubt if every single note can be expected to he in the centre, even if the archangels took to trumpeting as we see them in the Old Masters. The -Andante is a good test of modern sympathy with old procedure. Few. I think, would be found to pass the music by. That little drooping figure catches the imagina - 1 ion. Perhaps the bass players are a bit apt to fade down so that the upper parts, light though they are, seem to lack sufficient, support. But the counterpoint keeps itself in the air deftly, and the winding -up is a gay little racket. In the popular No. 4. for violin solo and two flutes (M. Louis Moyse plays the second). the slightly Clark colour of 13tusch's fiddling contrasts well with that of the flutes, which are most delicately played : to admiration. Their echoing effect in the slow movement is striking. I have not heard this music to Netter advantage : leisurely, spacious, a perfect type of Bash's best bit adt h. The finale runs on velvet. Throughout, the management of weights is very pleasing. Nothing can make the first movement of No. 3 sound aught but jog -trot. The musician. if he wants, can find more pleasure in it than the layman. I think a good deal of the Bach -rapture expressed of late years by some people has roots which are not altogether musical : the 1 leart ies Mere upon him : but this takes us into a closer study of the mind than most people like to make ; and that Mould bring us to a consideration (not to be undertaken in these chaste pages) of the queer state of music in this funny country. I%lr. Busch and his party jog genially : which is much better than some conductors, who jog Clog-and-Magogishly. A tiny cadenza is added to the passage jointing the movements. The second gains from the use of a small orchestra. Some people will like it less, because they chiefly enjoy the physical excitement of hearing a lot of basses rumbling. It seems to me that such a recording as this allows one to take in the music better. But no recorded performance gets as broad a phrasing, and as delicate stresses, as, say, Toscanini would. Nearly every-

27 January 1936 The GRA 11OPIIO.VE 327 body thinks it in too short breaths. That applies to almost all overture, and the choral -orchestral Belshazzar's Feast, with music. The beginning-and maybe the end-of taste in its ballet implications, besides a viola concerto. building is the ability to think in long phrases. If 1 had to There are four movements. The first takes three sides and mark one great quality in Toscanini, above others (and part of the fourth ; the second ends on side 5 ; the third takes there are many). I :shot! Id name that : his extraordinary power three, and the finale four. In the first movement I get an of securing long phrasing. But Busch is good, here, and the impression of high tension and of thrusting power, with in single record containing No. 3 is as good a sample as any of his litt e likeness in the shaping of the figures, and in some broodtreatment of the quick movements. ing spirit that seems to be here, to Sibelius (e.g., early on No. 5 has a far more interesting first movement. The side 2) ; but the composer's harmonic thinking is less plain interludes, between returns of the main -body theme. are than the Finnish master's. It attracts me, for it does not subtly beautiful. Listen for the hit (flute trills) at 1 in. on seem. as in so much music of to -day, to be just modish wear. side 2 of 444 ; and the piano (Serkin) has a life of its own, on or a top -dressing hiding barrenness in ideas. The dissonance the third side. A few moments of these episodes are wort ir is keen, and in the short time I have been able to spend with acres of hearty jog -trot. The three-part slow movement the work. I Flo not altogether size up the composer's purpose, muses graciously : a shade faster than we sometimes hear it : but at such a place as the start of side 3 I am strongly but that helps to keep it in the air. In the finale, as in most of taken by the sense that he has a straight, strong aim in the the gay movements. this party is apt to be a title sober. travailing music. He has grip and all -through feeling, and the I can imagine a keener spring in the rhythm, in places. But very helpful ability to keep a movement in the air, and unified the style is a good one for keeping a longish moy ement going. in feeling. Sal'ent figures. mentioned in Mr. Evans's notes It is a good classical sty e, perhaps most quickly appreciated on the work, can be found near the start (the semiquaver by those who have been brought up among the classics. and flirt) and its fo lowing bar. on top : at 11 ins. (violins), and the have been accustomed to exploring them at first hand. in the rising seventh jump and its continuation (this can be heard printed music itself. it can give wide p ensure to others. in the bass, as clearly as anywhere. at about 21 ins.). In No. ti the garnbas are The Scherzo is marked heard (Bach scored for viola Presto con ºralizia. The last cda braccia-two parts : viola word suggests a mordancy cla gamba-two parts, 'cello SELECT ED LIST which is easily found in the and keyboard : usually, 'cellos sub -acid quirks and jerks of replace gamines). The tone t he music. But " malice ". colour is thus nearer to the can it really come off' in music original than in most perfor- Adolph Busch Chamber Players Columbia LX444-6 at all? I doubt it. The commances. The pace is slower, Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra H.M.V. DB poser's rhythmic impulse is and in some ways the shaping Orchestra de la Société des Concerts extremely keen : it would. I du gains : but the interest, Conservatoire (C.C.) H.M.V. DB feel, repay close analysis. The Schnabel and B.B.C. Symphony Orchestra movement might he called London Symphony Orchestra rhythm -ridden, hut there is Albert Sandler not the monotony of much of Stravinsky's rhythm -monger- think, lags a little. One side of 447. by the way, says "Part 1-First Movement,- Allegro (First PHI)." and the other says " fart 2-First Mot outwit -Allegro (rirst Part)" (instead of "Second Part"). Surely some better designation could be found. in which the word " I'art " is not Alfred Cortot (C.C.) Richard Tauber London Palladium Orchestra Leslie Hutchinson Roy Fox and his Band u,-ed in two senses? " Sirle " seems the most obvious first word of the title. Cannot, labellers get together and deg ise consistent ways of doing their jobs? The slow movement is one of the best, of Bach's beneficences. 1 could wish the two bass parts rather stronger in this sweet refreshment. The finale shows again how much better it is to treat the works as chamber music titan (as is the way of one or two of our native con- ductors) as " big bow -wow'' exhibitions. \Ve resented Handel front the " bow -wows" (more or leas dentition) ; let not Bach go to the dogs! DECCA London Symphony Orchestra (Harty): Symphony (Walton). Decca X I tlt4- I :3 (I 2in.. 30s.). Three movements of the four were performed some time ago. and the last in _\'oventber Now, in December. the whole is recorded : striking enterprise. The score is not yet issued (I understand it will be ready in February : O.C.P.). Othe- work prevented my hearing the music in the concert hall, and we go to press early this month. so my impressions must be somewhat sketchy. Walton was horn in Lancashire in 190.2, and is mostly self-taught. He has not written very widely. and Ire has been known to us only since 1923, when a quartet was done at the Contemporary 31usic Festival. Appearance at that bleak concourse of extremities is not the best augury. but the composer seems to have lived it down. The Carnegie Trust published his piano quartet.: there is his music to the Sitwell Facade, the bustling Portsmouth Point H.M.V. DB Decca X Columbia DB1616 H.M.V. DB Parlo. -Odeon R H.M.V. B8392 Parlophone F350 Decca K803 ing. It is marked off from other post-war music, though I think such a movement easier to construct titan the first or last. There is something of the Portsmouth Point "rough island story'' in it-english individualism. I find the hits of melody not very convincing. I doubt if the composer's melodic thinking is yet fully- fused with the harmonic. That is a weakness much more pronounced in 90 per cent. of present-day music. I am always a little doubtful of these nervy scherzos. but if you like the type. this is a very skilful example. It might have been conceived in terms of ballet. 'i'he slow movement is a far bigger test. Con malincolia, says this one. Again, a certain leisure in pronouncement and evocation is worth noting : a good quality. I -le 's not afraid of the broad phrase, and some cay his expression may be warmer' still. He lets himself go (as, to take another modern. does Bliss). It seems to me a considerable feat to have worked up the climax of effect in the middle of side 8, with consistency in the use of dissonant material. The music is to me much more true (to use the word without qualification, in the music -cum -life sense) than the vast, majority of what is putt forth as expressing the clay we live in. 'I he finale begins with splendid energy and a long -voyage outlook. It early shapes itself in more familiar stile than the others, in a sectional manner, about which the difficulty is to know how it hangs toget her. The varied attacks excite a diversity of interest, the designations being "Maestoso ; brioso ed ardentemente : vivacissimo : maestoso." I wonder if the music here is not a little raw? The first two sections are easily distinguished : I suppose the maestoso may be reckoned as a kind of introduction to the chief theme -containing part, the brioso (spirited, fiery) part. The fuguing on side 10-

28 328 The GRAMOPHONE January 1936 a good old device for tightening the rivets-is perhaps rather doubtful here : I do not altogether feel its cogency. Some of the developing phrases of this section are a bit trite. About in. on side 11 another theme, which has been shaped before, takes up the game, contrapuntally urged along, and then the counterpoint becomes keener still, with part of the earlier fugued theme combined. The maestoso broadens out to crown the movement. More study than time now allows, and the very necessary poring over the score, would undoubtedly show the details of the building better. But considering the nature of the first three movements, the finale, though full of good matter, seems scarcely to put the crown on the work ; yet it has remarkable pull, and impresses me strongly. The composer has obviously been influenced by Sibelius ; but influence matters little. I wish more moderns would let themselves be influenced by people with big views. \\ e have too much niminy-piminy music, afraid to let itself go, or having nowhere to go to if it did. Walton is young : again, no harm in that ; but he will grow in symphonic stature. The vitamins are here. I hope he will let himself go in melodic flight : and there are some other things I should like to discuss, did time and space permit. But for the present, here is the work of a man with honest, big aims, and a lot of power. Good luck to him! The recording is hearteningly big, even with fibre (the discs are hard on needles). Not having seen the music or heard the work in the concert room, I cannot say what the reproduction really is : but it gives an admirable effect of size and well -knit proportioning. W. R. A. PARLOPHONE Grand Symphony Orchestra : Hungarian Rhapsody (Liszt). Parlophone R2143 (l0in., 2s. 6d.). The orchestral ingredients are well mixed in this Hungarian Rhapsody. There are nice little tit -bits for clarinets and bassoons, the piano is included as an instrument of the orchestra, but given a suitable chance to shine in a cadenza, and so forth. The result is an enjoyable confection served up hot and spicy. A. R. ORGAN Otto Dunkelberg (organ) : Silent night, holy night and O Sanctissima. Parlo - phone R2141 (l0in., 2s. 6d.). I presume that the large organ at Passau Cathedral is again being used for this recording. The two well-worn tunes are played in a straightforward, if unimaginative. manner, both being introduced, concluded, and mixed here and there with the inevitable carillon. The recording stands up well to the full organ, fat pedal and all! A. R. CHAMBER MUSIC *Léner String Quartet : Quartet No. 77 in C major (" The Emperor "), Op. 76, No. 3 (Haydn), and Andante from Quartet in D minor, Op. 76, No. 2 (Haydn). Columbia LX45I-4 (four 12in., 24s.). Though several records of the Slow Movement of the Emperor are available I cannot remember a complete recording having been issued before as a general release. The Léner Quartet are at the top of their form in this performance, communicating to us the enjoyment which they evidently felt in playing Haydn's delightful music. There is, moreover, a welcome vitality in their rendering. The accompanying leaflet gives all necessary historical and analytical notes both on The Emperor and on the movement chosen for the side left over. A wholly admirable recording. A. R I il I II IINp111UpY1111p'iHy V1g u INSTRUMENTAL Albert Sandler and his Orchestra : Hassan-Serenade (Delius) and " None but the weary heart " (Tchaikovsky, arr. Mulder). Columbia DB1616 (10in., 2s. 6d.). It would not be fair to compare this recording of the Serenade from Hassan with Sir Thomas Beecham's exquisite performance ín the first album of the Delius Society, but ít is, on its own ground, an excellent rendering, in which Albert Sandler gives the right wistful touch to the melody originally destined for the 'cello. After a rather cloudy start the playing of a reasonable transcription of Tchaikovsky :s lovely song reaches a passionate emotional climax. No one could complain that this performance lacks temperament. The recording of both pieces is exceedingly good and I predict a wide popularity for this disc. Marcel Moyse (flute) and Louise Moyse (piano) : Humoreske (Kreisler-D orak) and Les Millions d' Arlequin-Serenade (Drigo). Columbia D I li 17 (l0in., 2s. 6d.). Owing to his nearness to the microphone Marcel Moyse's flute sounds a good deal louder than life-size and the breathing of the flautist is all too audible. His phrasing is sometimes, to say the least of it, unusual! The fact is that the Humoreske (originally a piece for the piano) is a misfit for the flute. The passionate section in the minor key, unforgettably played by Kreisler in his version for the violin, sounds foolish on the chaste flute. The Serenade is much more successful, though the rather hard bright stream of tono represents an instrument other than the flute we know. Huberman (violin) and Siegfried Schultze (piano) : Valse, Op. 70, No. 1 (Huberman-Chopin) and Moment Musical ( luer-schubert). Columbia LB25 (l0in., 4s.). The harmonics to which the violin Iras to resort to produce the highest notes in the opening section of this transcription give Chopin's charming little valse a skittish character it does not really possess, and the middle section, all double - stopped, is transformed into a Johann Strauss waltz-a most Schubert's attractive one, but an odd metamorphosis. Moment Musical. the ono in F minor, suffers no sea -change. Huberman's playing is, as ever, beautifully clean and musical : balance and recording are exceptionally good. William Primrose (viola) and Sidonie Goossens (harp) : Ave Maria (Schubert, arr. Wilhelmj), and Londonderry Air. Columbia DX720 (12in., 4s.). It is odd that the harp is the instrument chosen for us by an inscrutable Providence to play in eternity, for its range of expression is lamentably small and its obtrusive character rapidly irritates. With all respect to Miss Goossens' known artistry, I submit that her accompaniments go near to ruin Mr. Primrose's lovely playing of these famous melodies. How she could bring herself to execute a sweeping cadenza between the two verses of the Air from County Derry surpasses my imagination. The lack of sustaining power in the harp is not so much felt in the arpeggio accompaniment to Schubert's song, but the instrument is still too prominent. The recording of both instruments is remarkably fine.

29 January 1936 The GRAMOPHONE 329 Temianka (violin) : Polonaise in A major, Op. 21 (Wieniawski). Parlophone E I 1288 (I 2in., 4s.). This piece has merit only as a vehicle for technical display. As music it is colourless, and having begun there seems no reason why it should ever stop. Temianka sails through the formidable obstacles presented with flying colours, making one regret that he did not choose music worthier of his great talent. The recording is good. Erdmann (pianoforte) : Intermezzi, Op. 117, Nos. 1 and 2 (Brahms). Parlophone E I 1287 (I 2in., 4s.). Brahms' Op. 117 is composed of three Intermezzi of which the first in E flat carries an inscription from Herder's Volkslieder, which serves to identify the German poem with Lady Anne Bothwell's lament, beginning " Baleo, my bale." It is, as Mr. Huller,Maitland say s, " an exquisitely simple lullaby. with a touch of dark foreboding in its middle section." Once again the demands of the time -limit have caused Mr. Erdmann to adopt too fast a pace and even notably to increase it at the recapitulation. One would have welcomed a slightly less matter-of-fact presentation of the lot ely lullaby tune. Tenderness is lacking. 1'ho pianist is much more at home in the second Intermezzo in 13 flat, which is not of a tranquil character, but rather restless and regretful. The recording is very good indeed. *Cortot (pianoforte): Scenes from Childhood, Op. 15 (Schumann). (Complete.) H.M.V. 1)B (two 12in., 12s.). This recording raises an interesting question. Are the Kinderscenen to be interpreted by the pianist from the point of view of the child or of the adult? Judging by the excessive amount of rubato Cortot introduces into many of the little pieces he would appear to take the second standpoint ; for rubato and sophistication go together. At the time at which he wrote the Scenes of Childhood Schumann was deeply in love with Clara Wieck and enduring agonies of suspense by reason of the opposition of her father to his suit. "My troubles have been productive of much music... I have never written so thoroughly from the soul as lately"! These statements-in the second he speaks of the Novelletten-are clues to the blessed relief he experienced in pouring his troubles out in muss predominately lyrical : for to this period belong such vi orks as the Fantasía in C, the Fantasirstücke, Novelletten, Kreisleriana, the Arabesque and Humoreske. The pianist, therefore, is entitled to play the Iiinderscenen with the sentiment of the last piece-" The poet speaks"-serving as a motto for the whole : " The natc ral longing of a young man for a home and children of his own, and a sentimental regret that the prospect of domestic happiness seemed so far away." The one definite failure in this recording from any point of view is the ever popular Trdurnerei : but the time -limit of the record and not Cortot is, presumably, responsible for the misplaced accelerandi that disturb the dreamy atmosphere of the music. (This will be noted by the keen ear of my correspondent Mr. Hughes!) Regarded subjecti ely, the tempo of "Child falling asleep " is also too quick and the playing without tenderness, but if, as Mr. Fuller Maitland states, the titles were added after the music was written, one need not perhaps attach too much significance to them. I have never heard a Cortot recording in which the piano tone sounded better-indeed, this is one of the best piano recordings I remember. That is high praise, considering that singing tone is demanded hy the majority of the pieces. Most people vi ill find these two discs wholly delightful : and the more exacting pianists will find much to admire, if also something upon which to hold critical inquest. First Record: (1) Of foreign lands and peoples; (2) Strange story; (3) Playing Tag" : (4) Child's petition ; (5) Quite happy-; (6) Important event ; (7) Revery; (8) By the fireside. Second Record : (9) Knight of the /lobby -horse: (10) Almost too severe; (11) Frightening-; (12) Child falling asleep ; (13) The poet speaks. A. R. Fr- Í 4 SONGS I have always made it a rule to give pride of place in these reviews to the music rather than the artist, but rules are meant to be broken, and when a singer just bowls one out with sheer charm, it would be boorish to veil her with the pedantic screen of academic criticism. I refer to Gitta Alpar, who has partnered Tauber. and is now heard in three songs from the film " I Give My Heart," better known over here as " The Dubarry." The songs are I give my lead, The Dubarry and Good Luck, by Carter, Millocker and'ulackeben, and Miss Alper sings them with a grace that is completely disarming. Her lovely soprano is well known, and these recordings can be recommended without reservation to brows high and low. (Parlophone R , 4s. each.) On the fourth side is a tango song called Loneliness by Edgar and Brodszky, which is not so successful. so that my choice goes to the first record. There are two records by Grace Moore, notable because, unlike her others, these are new recordings made in Hollywood only a few weeks ago. Brunswick 0130 (4s.) has One Fine 1)ay from Madame Butterfly by Puccini sung in Italian, and very well done, except for an echo in the recording. On the back is Love me Forever, the theme song from " On Wings of Song," by Schertzinger and Kahn. Mr. Schertzinger in this and the earlier " One Night of Love " has shown us what a good melodist he is, but Miss Moore's singing is marred by wicked enunciation, while her humming effects compare badly with those of Gracie Fields, whose record of this number issued two months ago is still the best as well as being the least expensive. The difference is just that between the hot and cold tap. But hear the record for the Puccini, and also the sister record of Musetta's Waltz Song from the same composer's La Bohéme, with the interruption by an unnamed gentleman, and chorus on Brunswick (9s. 6d.). This is backed by Denza's Funiculi Funicula, and both records have orchestral accompaniment, conducted on the twelve-incher by Joseph Pasternack. Malcolm McEachern is always welcome, and this month he introduces two songs written by Flotsam and Jetsam, alias B. C. Hilliam and himself. The first has been broadcast and is an effective sentimental called Old Stay at Horne, whi e the other, Speed, does not quite come off, especially when we remember the earlier and g orious Song of the Air. The accompanist is not named, but I suspect Hilliam. There is a 'cello in the first song. (Columbia DB1618, 2s. 6d.) Richard Crooks is much better recorded than usual, so that those who admire his methods will relish his performance of Love's Old Sweet Song (Bingham and Molloy) and Mother Machree (Young, Olcott and Ball) on H.M.V. DA1437 (4s.). No need to say anything about these at this time of day. Derek Oldham has two modern ballads in Roadway of Romance from the film " Charing Cross Road," by Keyes (can this be Clay Keyes, " The Ace of Clubs "?), and Carr's Orchids to my Lady on H.M.V. B8394 (2s. 6d.). Lastly, Webster Booth sings Logan's Pale Moon and Posford's The world is mine to -night on H.M.V (2s. 6d.). Mr. Posford is known for his music in B.B.C. shows, and in this song proves that he can beat Vienna at its own game. Both these records have orchestral accompaniments and are excellently recorded. ROGER WINIBUSH.

30 330 The GRAMOPHONE : / r/, / 04'A P.. v:-!:-. :a OPERATIC AND FOREIGN HERBERT E. GROH (tenor), with organ and church bells. - 0 Sanctissima (O du fri hliche, o du selige) and Silent night, holy night (Stifle Nacht, heilige Nacht) ; sung in German. Parlophone R2140 (loin., 2s. 6c1.). These two sacred songs may be found grouped with German folk -songs ; they deal with the birth of our Lord and so are better regarded as Christmas hymns. This notice of Herr Groh's record would thus have found a more appropriate place in last month's issue ; only the record was not available in time. The organ accompaniment, plus church bells, suggests a congregation of worshippers and thus one would expect choral recordings instead of tenor solos. Ilowe\ or, we have the latter, and it is fortunate that the loudness of the accompaniment has been fixed at a discreet level. The singer's style combines simplicity and sincerity ; and the melodious nature of these old hymns and the very pleasant quality of Herr Groh's voice make the record a very, satisfactory one. LOTTE LEHMANN (soprano), with organ.-bist du bei mir (Bach) ; and, with Dr. Weissmann at the piano, The Erl King (Schubert) ; sung in German. Parlo.-Ocleon R (10in., 4s.). It is less than a year ago since Elisabeth Schumann's lovely recording of Bist du bei inir was issued, with an orchestral accompaniment. Now comes Lotto Lehmann's, with organ support. It is fortunate for me that I am not obliged to suggest which is the better ; both are beautiful. The newer version is marked by true devotional fervour ; the enunciation is exemplary. I hope it is only by a mere accident that my copy of The Erl King does not reproduce well. It is not often that a soprano attempts this song. An experienced operatic artist, Mme. Lehmann has no difficulty in realising the dramatic nature of the ballad ; and she has sufficient command of vocal colour to characterise the principals in the tragedy. I fancy her tempo is a shade too rapid and too uniformly rapid ; in saying this, I have the interpretations of Mmes. Schumann- Heink and Ge hardt in mind. The present recording is, however, undeniably sound and effective and is well worth hearing. RICHARD TAUBER (tenor), with piano accompaniment by Percy Kahn.-(i) Im wundersch&nen Monat Mai, (ii) Aus meinen Tránen spriessen, (iii) Die Rose, die Lilie, die Taube, die Sonne, and (iv) Ich hab' im Traum geweinet, from Schumann's Dichterliebe ; sung in German. Parlo. - Odeon R (10in., 4s.). Schubert only became acquainted with Heine's poems the year before he died, and so we have but six Schubert -Heine songs. Later song writers, especially Schumann and R. Franz, explored Heine more thoroughly. Schubert drew from Die Heimkehr ; Schumann, for his Dichterliebe song cycle, chose his poems from the Lyriaches Intermezzo, which will be found in any edition of Heine's Beet der Lieder. To juege by the present record, which gives us the first, January 1936 second, third and thirteenth song in Schumann's cycle, we are not to have the cycle in full ; but Herr Tauber renders the songs so stylishly that I, for one, would willingly listen to more. Ich hab' inn Traum geweinet (I wept as I lay dreaming) is particularly well sung and brings out the contrast between the last verse and the others in spite of the strophic setting. The collaboration of Mr. Kahn should receive honourable mention ; nor should the high quality of the recording be overlooked. JOSEPH SCHMIDT (tenor), with orchestra under Dr. Weissmann.-Wohin, wohin seid ihr entschwunden (Oh, where has fled my life's young golden morn) from Eugen Onegin (Tchaikovsky) ; sung in German. Parlophone R2142 (10in., 2s. 6d.). To me Herr Schmidt continues to present a battling problem. I have heard him sing magnificently in radio broadcasts. I have yet to hear the same excellent singing from ono of his records. Some of them are certainly very good indeed ; others are quite disappointing. This recording of the well-known Lenski's aria, for which the singer apparently has a new German text, is a disappointing one. Yet, since there was no need to cut or hurry, both sides of the record being available for the air, a first-rate result might have been anticipated. There is no need to quarrel with the interpretation or the recording; it is voice and enunciation that are at fault. It is not easy to explain how Herr Schmidt mishandles his native tongue, but his sin will be evident to all who know the sound of well -sung German ; the undesirability of his nasal tone will be evident to all. GERMAINE MARTINELLI (soprano), with orchestra.- Marguerite au Rouet (Gretchen at the spinning wheel) (Schubert ; text by Goethe, trans. by Belanger), and La Jeune Religieuse (The young nun) (Schubert ; text. by Craigher, trans. by Belanger) ; sung in French. Col. LX450 (I2in., 6s.). Gretchen ant Spinnrade and Die junge Yonne, French versions of which are offered to us here, are two of Schubert's greatest songs ; yet when Gretchen's song was composed Schubert was only seventeen. I can recall two former recordings of this song but none of Die junge \ onne. so far as this country is concerned ; and I should never have guessed that our introduction to it would be by way of France. Both on account of the songs and the singer, who is a very capable soprano making her British gramophone debut as a soloist. this is quito an interesting record ; therefore I am sorry I must be unkind to it. The impression that Schubert's piano parts to his songs may be scrapped in favour of a light orchestra is one that must be discouraged, even though with some of the songs it may not make much difference. In the present cases, however, it makes a vast deal of difference, and I regard the use of the orchestra as an impertinence and an act of stupidity for which everyone responsible, including the singer, should be censured. Those who agree with this view will find in the record little more than a misuse of fine singing and recording ; those who are willing to accept the orchestra are likely to find the record very much to their taste. *ORPHEUS.-Opera in three acts. Music by Christoph Willibald Gluck. Produced at Vienna in 1762 with Italian text by Ranieri Calzabigi ; produced at Paris in 1774 with French text by Pierre Louis Moline. 1.n abbreviated 't ersion, recorded on eight records, Col. LX425 to 432 ; sung in French and issued with album and leaflet, 48s. A preliminary note on this album of records appeared last month (p. 287). Gluck's Orfeo ed Euridice (which Columbia translates and abbreviates to Orpheus) was its composer's twenty-first serious opera, written when he was forty-eight. With it,

31 January 1936 The OR.11/OP//OVE 331 Gluck created a new style of Italian ope a. The work was successful and its influence was profound. Thus Orfeo is worth knowing for its historical interest. It also deserves hearing for its intrinsic value, though it belongs to a type that is long since dead. Two of the weaknesses of Orfeo are clear from the present recordings. It is tonally monotonous, since the soloists are one contralto and two sopranos. Also. it is lacking in act ion ; it is little more than a series of pictures. The recordings will also make it plain that to do the mork justice a contralto of exceptional gifts is needed. The opera contains much ballet music, most of which has here been omitted. Given the spectacular ballets anti the superb contralto, Orfeo may be a box-office success even to -day. The ballets explain why the French have always had a fondness for this opera. It is not surprising, then, that the present recordings hail from France. This Columbia version has the atmosphere of the concert hall associated with it. which is perhaps inevitable owing to the nature of the music. The recording throughout is extremely good. The musical direction is equally good ; M. Henri Tomasi evidently understands and loves the work. The Columbia Company are ent died to our warmest thanks for their courage in issuing this album of records. which must of necessity have a limited sale. I hope it will not be too limited. I sincerely hope that many whose first impulse will he to piss these lovely records over as dull. old-fashioned stuff will he guided by me and give them a patient hearing. If the magic of Orpbeus's music fails to make a substantial number of converts I shall be very much surprised. I am not going to complain merely because cuts have been made : but I propose to grumble at the manner in which cutting has been done. Once it was decreed that a certain amount of abbreviation was desirable. I suggest that the Dance of the Furies (sitie ti) could have easily been spared and that there was no need for two " happy -t tiding " finale numbers such as we have on sides 15 and 16. The two other items from Act III are satisfactory and the shortening of Act I has been clone with discretion ; but \et I I should never have been cut at a I. The omissions from Act I I, scene I have been judiciously chosen, it, is true ; they are the chorus Qui t'aºnine en ces lieux? and the air Ah, la flamme yui are dévore. Act II, scene 2, however, is simply left " in the air," since nothing is recorded after the aria Que! nouveau ciel comes to an end. \Vith this, my criticisms of the album come to an end, too. Jany Delille's light sopralo is of a type that is more admired in France than outside that country. but the singer makes a very creditable Cupid ; and if she seens to suggest short skirts and sauciness, as site may perhaps do in Sournis au silence, the fault is mainly Gluck's. Ile was not \cry successful with Cupid's music. The more dramatic tones of that fine artist Germaine Feraldv have a touch of French keenness in the higher register. \\ hat little this artist has to sing she does extremely well and she should be an attractive Eurydice. How was peace preserved in the Elysian Fields when she found that Cupid had bagged her solo Get asile aimable el Iranquille? The d' Alexis \'lassofl' Russian Choir provide a levy satisfactory chorus, though the sopranos a e rather bashful at times. The real vocal triumphs are reserved for Alice Raveau. She has a lovely even contralto voice and it is a joy to listen to her. She has personality that survives the microphone. It is easy to picture her Orpheus, a person of noble character, whose love fo^ Eurydice is on a higher plane than the sex - emotion of mero ordinary mortals. Without exaggeration, without ever departing from pure, clean vocal tone, she portrays the feelings of the unhappy Orpheus with superb skill. It is a grand piece of work, finely conceived ; and its execution is marked by beauty of phrasing and purity of enunciation. The most beautiful recordings are t hose which deal with the music for Orpheus, with or without chorus. Space does not permit of a detailed discussion ; I can only mention the simplicity and dignity of the mourning scene (sides I and 2), the beauty and pathos of Orpheus's lament (side 3), the drama of the scene for Orpheus and the Furies (sides 7, S and 9), and the eloquent outpouring of grief in the famous.l'ai perdu time Eurydice (side 14). I feel bound, however, to draw particular attention to the aria Que! nouveau ciel (Che puro ciel!). This is surely one of the loveliest things in all music, as well as one of the simplest. It needs an abler pen than mine to do justice to its ravishing beauty. It paints a perfect tone -picture of the home of the blessed spit -its anti of Orpheus's. joy and wonder as he first views this entrancing abode, a joy that soon changes to sadness as his thoughts turn once more to his beloved Eurydice. Enough has been said, I hope, to indicate that Columbia's "Orpheus" is a most interesting and attractive work. If it receives the measure of public favour that it deserves, its sponsors should lie amply rewarded for their enterprise. H.F.\.L. GILBERT AND SULLIVAN H.M.V. have reissued a number of songs from the complete recordings of the Gilbert, and Sullivans operas on four records in an album. (DB s.) The extracts are taken from 7 he Mikado (six), Gondoliers (four), Yeomen (two), lolanthe and Pinafore (one each). The antique recording is a reminder that it is time for new sets, and readers of THE GRAMOPHO\E whose memores go back to the summer of 1934 will know my own feelings on G. and S. recordings and the D'Oyly Carte monopoly. Is it, for instance, in the interests of' the composer to issue Itere the final bars of the March from lo/anthe. which in the opera are the culmination of what has gone before. In their isó ation they lose their effect. The most modern recording here is from The Yeomen, which also has the advantage of George Baker, whose Nightmare might yell have been included. Once morn I plead for a modern recording of the two great overtures, and indeed of the operas themselves, only this time with good singers. I must single out for special praise Derek Oldham's Tate a Pair of Sparkling Eyes, which is a first-rate performance, anti I would like to say that in my view the only Sullivan set that approaches adequacy is Ruddigore. where a genuine attempt has been made at balance, and where the orchestra plays its proper part.. Meanwhile, these selections will please those fans who as long as they get their Mikado do not care a hoot hoc it is done. It. W. SOCIETY ISSUES THE MOZART OPERA SOCIETY.-Vol. II. Excerpts from Le nozze di Figaro, Acts I and II. Six records, with album and brochure (12in., 33s.). Vol. III. Excerpts front Le nozze di Figaro, Acts III and IV. Five records, with album and brochure (I2in., 30s.). The ensembles from Le nozze di Pigaro were issued in Vol. I of the Mozart Society's publications (for review, see issue for November 1935). The reminder of the opera is not issued in one album. as «as originally proposed, but in two albums, as Vol. II and Vol. III. published simultaneously. Thus the volumes are kept approximately equal in size. the less wealthy members can acquire the work in thirds and the more wealthy can have the entire work without delay. Since the performance, viewed as a whole, is extremely satisfactory, we may begin by thanking II.M.V. most sincerely for their enterprise in issuing a complete, or rat her, nearly complete Mozart opera. The cuts are not numerous. Volume II contains the solos and duets from Acts I and II and all that is now missing is the chorus Giovani lieti, fiori s'pargete from Act I. Vol. III contains the solos and duets from Acts III and IV and also the choruses from Act I 1 I ; the missing items

32 332 The GRAMOPHONE January 1938 are Barbarina's miniature aria L'ho perduta and two numbers that are almost invariably cut. viz., Ma rcellina's Ii capro -e la capretta and Basilio's In quegl' anni. Save for an odd line -or two, all the recitativo seeco is omitted. In awarding praise I am inclined to select for the recipients first the recording engineers, for the excellent technical job they have made of the entire series of recordings : and secondly, the distinguished conductor Karl Ebert. for the admirable way in which he has directed the performance of the opera. Between them they can share the praise for a very striking feature of the work, the splendid balance between voice and orchestra. One other general observation may be made. this time by way of reproach. It is unlikely that the soil of Sussex is fatal to appoggiaturas and the lack of these embellishments must presumably he Maine(' upon Herr Ebert. Deh vieni non lardar, for instance, feels the shortage acutely. though a couple of appoggiaturas have dodged the censor and found their way into the recitative. Those who would like to compare the aria " with and without ' can compare the present recording with the H.M.V. version by Mine. Schumann. The principals are as before, with one exee itiou. As Bartolo. Norman Allin has been replaced by Italo 'i'ajo. who renders the buffo a ia La vendetta in capital style and with excellent enunciation. Now, having welcomed the newcomer, it shall be ladies first. Susanna is the central figure of the plot and Audrey Mildmay is a very capable interpreter of this astute young damsel. Vocally she is best in the duets; her solos betray a slight y unsteady tone at times. The Venite inginoeehiatevi has several imperfect notes and the first part oft he solo might have been sting with more crispness, but the ge neral result is quite good. Her Deh vieni, non tardar is very beautifully sung, but is possibly rather slow and deliberate for a love song. The opening duets with Figaro. the delicious Crudel, perché finora with Count Almaviva and the lovely letter duet Che soave zeff relto with the Countess are all excellent, but the Susanna-Marcellina duet Via resti servita seems to me to lack atmosphere and misfire. Aulikki Rautawaara is just a little disappointing in the solos allotted to poor. neglected Rosina. the Countess Almaviva. She lacks the necessary smooth and elegant legato and sings with apparent effort. especially in the Dove sono. Luise Helletsgruher. as Cherubino, has just the rig it style and her arias would he ideal if only she had possessed more control over the timbres of her voice. She is apt to change capriciously from a dull to a bright timbre, and vice versa, which rather disturbs my enjoyment of the Voi the sapete. Her!.'on so pih cosa son, however, is a very lovable performance. We come now to the men, with \Villi Domgraf-Fassbünder as Figure. I l is is a splendid, full, rich baritone, never edgy, never nasal. it is a real pleasure to hear his vigorous rendering of Aprite un po' quegl' occhi. which has been so often cut in stage performances. The Se wool bailare is not as subtle as it might be ; in fact, it is rather ponderous. The Non pit andrai, however. could hardly be bettered ; I have never heard a finer recording, nor ono which so clearly indicated that there is humour in the song. Incidentally, it is not disfigured by a top -note ending. Roy Henderson, as Count Almaviva, is at his best in the duet Crudel, perché finora. He does not seem too happy with the language in his recitative Hai gi i rinta la causa and aria Vedrh, mentr' io sospiro ; his singing of them is pleasant but not very inspired. It remains to commend the brilliant performance of the overture which prefaces the recordings in Vol. II and to ment ion that Mrs. Compton Mackenzie and Mr. Legge, as translator and annotator respectively, have carried on the good work they bogan in Vol. I. This Figaro, viewed as a complete work, is so admirable that its few voca shortcomings may he condoned ; I wish it well. H. F. V. L. THE MOUSSORGSKY SONG ALBUM Fourteen Songs of Modeste Moussorgsky, sung by Vladimir Rosing.-Accompaniments by Myers Foggin. Issued on six 12 -inch records in Album with Notes and Translations. Price :36s. The Parlophone Company by this enterprising recording have given music -lovers one of the rarest treats in the gramophone reltertor;v. I hear that.japan. which seems to possess a voracious appetite for good music. has ordered 3110 sets ; let us hope that music -lovers Itere will not be backward in display ing a like enthusiasm. Moussorgsky's songs are equa to any in the world : his idiom is as individual as those of Sibelius and Berlioz and his predecessor, Dargomijzslcy. is the only influence in his work discernible to any degree. His songs are the reflection of his aims in ge feral. namely, to present life as he saw it around him. His nature was dominated by a love of justice and he could not tolerate any deviation from or distortion of the truth. as he conceived it. Mt sic to him was not an entertainment but a means to an end. Like Dargornijzsky he sought to make the note echo the word, or in of her wore s, to reproduce in music the vibrations of social thought and actit ity. The result was, so far as his songs are concerned, a form of melody which unites the inflections of human speech with musical tone. Everything in the song. the melody. harmony. form, etc., was moulded to express t lie idea of or character of the song. The songs in this album are all masterpieces and they are sung by a man who seems by nature o hay a been the predestined instrurnent for bringing them to life. Hosing (see THE GRA?MOI'HONE, April 1935) is, like Moussorgsky, a born genius, and be is unsurpassed in the interpretation of' songs demanding characterisation and acting ability, whether tragic or comic. The songs recorded are : I erernouska's Cradle Song and Gopak, record S\V I ; The Star and To the Dnieper, record S\\ 2 ; Reverie of the Young Peasant. The Orphan and Mushrooms. record S\C3 :,ti'ongs and Dances of Death, No. l Trepak and No. 2 Death Lullaby, record SW4 ; No. :3 Death Serenade and \o. 4 Field Marshal Death, record S\V5: and The Goat, Ballade and Savishna, record S\\'6. This selection pro ices a varied selection of the comic, pathetic, tragic and dramatic, ttncl, needless to say, Rosiug's inherent genius and affinity with the spirit of Moussorgsky enable hire to interpret these moods with a wealth of imagination and artistry: it was not for nothing that he made these songs his own, for his temperament and outloo< on life are in sympathy with Motissorgsky's. The under -dog in life always has his support and humanity is the keynote of hot le corni>oser and artist. Rosing's achievement in this album is a great one : by all the arts of vocal inflection and psychological acting he gives voice to the soul of the song; in the tender pathos of Yeremouska's song, the joie -de -vivre of the Gopak, the lonely bereavement of the singer in the Star, the acute pathos of the poor orphan's appeal. the sardonic humour of the Goat. the nave sadness of the Idiot's Love -song or the moving drama of the Songs of Death, he is always giving us the very core of Moussorgsky's intentions. If the reader has ever heard Rosing sing these songs at a recital, he or she will need no further incentive to buy this superb album : if not, let him, assuming great art appeals to him. procure it and enjoy a collection of masterpieces of which be will never tire. Apart from the interpretative aspects of I:osing's singing, there are lovely passages of vocal beauty. My ers Foggin's accompaniments are an artistic achievement. No reader veto doubts his ability to follow the Russian need hesitate for a moment as the translations, being based on a combination of the free (poetic) and the literal (word-for-word), enable e\ er;v syllable. so to speak, of the original to he followed. The album itself is an attractive dark blue, and, as stated above, it enfolds a rare treasure for the music -lover. RICHARD HOLT.

33 January 1936 The GRAMOPHONE THE STARS YOU REALLY ENJOY HEARINT. --r TAUBER, the Incomparable in Schumann Songs Dichterliebe No. 1-Im wunderschdnen Monat Mal No. 2-Aus meinen Tranen sprlessen R No. 3-Die Rose. die Lille, die Taube (4/-) Ich Hab' Im Traum Geweinet.. Sung in German, with piano accompaniments by PERCY KAHN. GITTA ALPAR-THE` ORIGINAL 'DUBARRY'. in Songs from her first British film " I GIVE MY HEART" I Give My Heart l. R p The Dubarry.. f (4/-) Good Luck. l 80420/-)295 Loneliness, Tango Song. J ( GRETE NATZLER, Beautiful Singing Star of "THE STUDENT'S ROMANCE " Film There's a Smile In the Skies; Oh! Lassie, Come; Marching 1 R2148 Along; I Lost My Heart in Heidelberg.... f (2/6) JOSEPH SCHMIDT, The Popular Tenor With GRAND OPERA ORCHESTRA. Conducted by Dr. Weissmann. Eugen Onegin (Tschaikowsky). Two Sides. Act 2-Lenski's Aria R2142 (Sung in German) (2/6) EDUARD ERDMANN The Great Brahms Pianist Intermezzo, Op. 117, No. 1 (Brahms).l E11287 Intermezzo, Op. 117, No. 2 (Brahms) f (4/-) 5 ' ' : Jr.tom MC Violin Solos by HENRI TEMIANKA Polonaise in A major, Op. 21 (Wieniawski). Two Sides. } E11288 (With plano accompaniment) (4/-) GRAND SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA Hungarian Rhapsody No. 3 (Liszt). Two Sides... R2143 (2/6) ORCHESTRA MASCOTTE Estudiantina, Waltz (Waldteufel) Nanna-Nanna, Waltz (Micheli).. NEW RACE SERIES R2144 (2/6) DANCE TO YOUR FAVOURITES HARRY ROY AND HIS ORCHESTRA Six -Eight Medley. Two Sides Intro.: Valencia, Ca c'est Parts, Picador, Barcelona, Rio de Janeiro, Casabianca I'm Sittin' High on a Hill Top, Fox - Trott Sugar Plum, Quick-Strpt (Both from film," Thanks a Million " Street in Havana, Rumba l.. No. 1-I've Got What it Takes, Fox -Trot R2I47 No. 2-What Makes Me Love You So, Fox -Trot. } (2/6) Sylvia Ballet, Fantasy (Delibes) l... CLARENCE WILLIAMS' WASHBOARD BAND Feramors (Dance of the Brides of Kashmir) (Rubinstein).5 (1/6) PARLOPHONE The January List of these and other New Records will be gladly sent free on application F343 ll/6) F344 (1/6) F345 Dance, Dolores, Rumba}. f (116) NAT GONELLA and his GEORGIANS Georgia Medley..1. F346 Georgia Rockin' Chair, Slow Fox -Trot. f (1/6) Japanese Sandman, Fox -Trot l Yeah Man, Fox -Trot f (1/6) ( Vocal Refrain by NAT GONELLA) JOE PARADISE AND HIS MUSIC Twelfth Street Rag l F356 Love's Serenade} f (1/6) c Ix F347 MAURICE WINNICK and his ORCH. Love is Like a Cigarette, Fox -Trot}. I Send My Love With These Roses, Fox -Trott. (I/6) A Little Bit Independent, Fox -Trot}...l F349 Sailing Home With the Tide, Waltzt ff (I/6) Records for Dancing-Strict Dance Tempo-No Vocals VICTOR SILVESTER and his BALLROOM ORCHESTRA Thanks a Million, Quick -Step (Film, " Thanks a Million ") When the Leaves Bid the Trees Goodbye, Waltz Save a Rainy Day for Me, Quick -Step. Ida, Sweet as Apple Cider, Slow Fox -Trot F348 l F351 f (1/6) F352 f (1/6) THE WASHBOARD SERENADERS Nagasaki, Fox -Trott Black Eyes, Fox -Trott J (1 F3/6)68 BRAVOUR DANCE ORCHESTRA.} F357 (1/6) POPULAR STARS SERIES AT THE " HUTCH " (Leslie Hutchinson) PIANO Love is Like a Cigarette F350 The Morning After (Film. " Hands Across the Table ")... } I (1/6) LEN BERMON-Singing and Step Dancing. Medley Intro.: Girl. in the Little Green Hat, This is Romance, My Heart Jumped Over the Moon Leave the Pretty Girls Alone F354 0/6) PATRICIA ROSSBOROUGH, Piano Solos Seeing Stars Selection. Thanks a Million-Selection 102, Clerkenwell Road, London, E.C.I } F355 f (1/6) F359 ORGAN SOLOS by MARCEL PALOTTI

34 x The GRAMOPHONE January 1936 n ArkiskicSensakion/ BRÁNbENBUR1 NCERTOS Complete First Time omposeri ecordeq as uesigne BRONISLAW H U B E R M A N(violin) Record LB25 (4/-) V A L S E (Chopin, Op. 70, No. 1- arr. Huberinan). MOMENT MUSICAL (Schubert -arr. Auer). GERMAINE MARTINELLI Record LX450 (6/-) Soprano MARGUERITE AU ROUET (Gretchen at the Spinning Wheel) (Goethe-Schubert). LA JEUNE RELIGIEUSE (The Young Nun) (Craigher-Schubert). Both French words by Belanger. ALBERT SANDLER and His Record DB1616 (2/6) ORCHESTRA HASSAN-Serenade (Delius) NONE BUT THE WEARY HEART (Tschaikowsky) WILLIAM PRIMROSE (Viola) and SIDONIE GOOSSENS (Harp) Record DX720 (4/-) AVE MARIA (Schubert-arr. bl'ilhelnd). LONDONDERRY AIR MALCOLM McEACHERN (Bass) Record DB1618 (2/6) OLD STAY AT HOME. With Piano and 'Cello. SPEED! CHOIR OF GIRLS from MARY DATCHELOR SCHOOL (Camberwell) Conducted by Miss Margaret Donnington Record DB1615 (2/6) JESU, JOY OF MAN'S DESIRING (Bach, -arr. Gillies Whittaker). BROTHER JAMES' AIR (Marosa) (arr. Gordon Jacob). " I have known Miss Donnington's fine work at the Mary Datchelor School, which rejoices in an extremely able head mistress, for a long time, and am glad to find it has been given this public recognition. Miss Donnington has succeeded in the department in which so many choral records tail. Almost every word the choir sings ca be heard. i he result is that Brother James' Air, complete with descant, is extraordinarily enjoyable." The Gramophone, December ter t Record SYDNEY HOWARD and Company DX719 (41-) SEX, SOBS AND SLAUGH- TER. Humorous Sketch. Two Sides. The 20 Prize Record. Ask for details! MARCEL MOYSE (Flute) Record DB1617 (2/6) LES MILLIONS D'ARLEQUIN-Serenade (Drigo) HUMORESKE (Dvorak, Op. 101, No. 7 arr. Kreisler). Piano accompaniment by Louise Moyse. LENER STRING QUARTET Four Records, LX451 to LX454 (6/- each) QUARTET No. 77 In C (" The Emperor ") (Haydn-Op. 76, No. 3). Four Records in Art Album (tree), Complete, 24!-. (Also in Automatic Coupling -Records, issued at same price as.standard ork.) ; BRANDENBURG COMPLETE IN 1 A recording of the six Bach i that makes history-played records in the form designed Busch himself made a bit London a few weeks before by- The BUSCH CHAM[ Under the Musical, Violin: Adolf Busch ; 0 1st Horn : Aubrey Brain'. Bradley ; Trumpet: George Marcel Moyse; 2nd F! Piano: Rudolph S, VOLUMI No. 1 in F major. Four on Five Sides.. Side 6. Siciliano (Largo; Adolf Busch and Rudolp No. 2 in F major. Three? on Four Sides. No. 4 in G major. Thi ments on Four Sides The above Seven Record: ART ALBUM (Vol. 1)(fr[ VOLUN11 No. 3 in G major. ments on Two Sides No. 5 in D major. Thi ments on Six Sides. No. 6 in B flat majo) Movements on Six Si The above Seven Records ART ALBUM (Vol. II) (fri (Also in A 1onralic Coupling-Rm lo LX8203; Vol. II-Nos. L t The January Supplement and complete Columbia catalogue will be gladly sent post free on request to: COLUMBIA, , Clerkenwell Road, London, E.C.I. wise oht e Pri ces co EN1 THE

35 ' I Jmncary 1936 The ORA 3IOPIIOSE zi The Radio Triumph 1935 was- TONEof CONCERTOS is. 1 to 6 (Bach) WO ALBUMS randenburg Concertos for the first time for by the composer. Adolf success of them in this recording. 3ER PLAYERS Irection of DOLF BUSCH Evelyn Roth well ; 2nd Horn : Francis Eskdale; 1st Flute : rite : Louis Moyse ; :rkin. I vfovementsl LX436 (Bach) rl to h Serkin LX438 J vlovements LX439 to. LX440 LX441 :ee Move - to " LX442 (6/- each) supplied in 1).COMPLETE,42/-. ' II ko Move - LX443 l} :ee Move- LX444 J` to LX446 Three des to LX449 (6;- each) supplied in se). COMPLETE, 42/-.,rds : Vol. I-Nos. LX8197 o LX8710. Price as standard :cork,.) P.. List of the Columbia " TONE " Radio Models post-free from Columbia, Clerkenwell Rd. London... E.C.1 r i; 1...,. -`5. f '.. rr. olumbia TON Radio SPECIAL FEATURES: !3 -, \I r = -. 1 THE FAMOUS COLUMBIA RADIOGRAM Model No. 621 Covered by Guarantee 22 GNS. (or Hire Purchase) QUIET automatic volume control, sensitivity adjustable for local and atmospheric conditions. Silent tuning. Absolutely silent electric gramophone motor. Perfect balance of tone at all settings of the volume -control, covering wide frequency range. A.C. only. Presentation Album of Three Columbia Records. not valid in I. F. S. LU M B I A rertains WORLD at HOME STARS IN THE N EW 1/6 VARIETY SERIES INCLUDE HARRY WELCHMAN FLANAGAN AND ALLEN YACHT CLUB BOYS ROCKY MOUNTAINEERS VIC OLIVER HAVER AND LEE NORMAN LONG TURNER LAYTON CLAPHAM AND DWYER QUENTIN MACLEAN HENRY HALL AND THE B.B.C. DANCE ORCHESTRA, etc.

36 The GRAMOPHONE January 1936 killtr7 - Now records Exclusively on, a. a Some of GRACIE FIELDS' Latest Records 8618 Old Soldiers Never Die! Parts I and 2. Fall in and Follow me Let the Great Big World keep turning ' 'Hello! Hello! who's your Lady Friend!' Mademoiselle from Armentieres' There's a Long Long Trail "Take me back to Dear Old Blighty' If you were the Only Girl in the World' It's a Long Way to Tipperary.' 8633 Roll Along Prairie Moon : Winter Draws on 8636 Trees : Smilin' Through 8599 When You grow up Little Lady : Love Me Forever 8585 Red Sails in the Sunset : South American Joe CHARII E KU NZ Charlie Kunz PIANO MEDLEY No.R.1 I 41' Parts I and 2. I'll see You Again' *The Desert Song "My Hero' from 'The Chocolate Soldier' 'The Merry Widow' Love will Find a Way 'The Blue Danube." 8551 Piano Medley No. R. i 0. Parts I and 2. ' I'm in the mood for Love" Everything's been done before" Dancing Time' In the middle of a Kiss' Cheek to Cheek' 'My Blue Heaven' REGINÁLD:.,: DIXON -FROM Cnottalate, 6o, City Road, Famous Organist at The Tower, Blackpool 8615 Dixon Hits No. 3. Parts I and 2. 'Red Sails in the Sunset' A Little Dash of Dublin' 'I'll Never say 'Never Again' again' 'South American Joe' There's a Lovely Lake in London ' ' Love is Everywhere.' 8568 Dixon Hits No. 2. Parts I and 2. 'Call me Sweetheart 'When I grow too old to Dream "Rehearsing a Lullaby' 'Me and the Old Folks at Home' etc. y ea 's and.. F,C.1. LE JACK 'PAYN.E ,15,BAÑD You can't do That There 'ere Comedy Fox frot 8657 A Thick, Thick Fog in London comedy Fox Trot 8666 'ALADDIN' -A Potted Pantomime, Parts I and 2. Ccmedy rt'jay--willbor lk a -- ',E1741 D - - The Santa Claus Express ftx het The Wedding of Jack and Jill F.x bet 8667 Schoolboy Howlers With Vocal Chorjses. Parts I and 2 PRiMÓ SCALA'S With Vocal Choruses kok Cheerio (Here we Go) Parts I and 2. ' ' Down at the Old Bull and Bush ' 'When Irish Eyes are Smiling' I'll be your Sweetheart' ' Dorothy Dean ' ' She's a Lassie from Lancashire etc Take your Partners! Parts I and 2. Veleta and Barn Dance. 'See me f dance the Polka ' and ' Blue Danube Waltz'.. (Compered by Bobbie Comber) Fri«does not apply in

37 January 1936 The URA.1/OPIIOVE 333 Owing to the Christmas holiday and the fact that even those unflagging servants of the public, the printers, want to eat their Christmas dinner in peace. t hose lines are being written some hat earlier than usual and some of the.january records are not yet available. There have been, however, a much larger MISCELLANEOUS PRICES (except when otherwise stated) H.M.V. C. 4/- B. 2/6 BD. 1/6 Columbia DX. 41- DB. 2/6 FB. r/6 Parlophone R. 2;6 F. I/6 number of ecords brought forward from the first of the month lists this month to cope with the demand for novelties and jollities for the Christmas and New Year parties. and it is to these records that I shall draw your attention for the most part,. Party Records The first record on your list for the festivities must be the Coventry Hippodrome Orchestra's Happy Selection (Regal- Zono. JI1{ I915). Jack Wilson is the solo pianist and Charles Shadwell conducts this collection of songs that all have that touch of happiness for their t wine--spread a little Happiness, Happy days ore here again. 1 want to be Happy, and so on. The drabbest clay will he brighter after hearing this disc. Another grandly played medley of familiar music is Childhood Memories playesl by the London Palladium Orchestra under the able baton of Richard Crean (I.l.V. B8392), and credit must be given to the arrangement of Debroy Somers. Both these records are worth getting for permanent pleasure as well as for the requirements of the season of the ' ear. Next on the list is Dancing through the Ages which Roy Fox and His Band play on a 12 -inch Decca (K804). Roy Fox himself announces the tunos somewhat haltingly, but with that quiet, charm that is particularly his own. Von can trace the history of dancing from the Minuet to the Rumba and start an argument about the respective merits of the Boston - Two -step and the Fox-trot. The band also play some of the hits of 1935 on K803. while Lew Stone and His Band also play their fan ourites on K808. Both records serve as excellent reminders of whar good tunes we have had during the past yea, but surely it would have been possible to avoid the duplication of Lullaby of Broadway. Smoke gets in your eyes and The Continental? \\ ithout this duplication people might have been tempted to buy both records instead of being faced with a choice. That Steffani and His Silver Songsters (Decca K807) also include Lullaby of Broadway in their Songs with the Songsters does not really complica e matters further, as I cannot imagine anyone who liked the first two records being interested in this one. Two records that are sure of popularity, at any rate with the older members of the family. are Regal-Zono. MR19:36-7, easy numbers to remember. These are of old Music -hall songs-daisy, Daisy, A Great Big Shame, and several others. The record is described as being by The Variety Singers and Their Chairman, but Fred Douglas does most of the singing although Charles Coborn himself is heard in The Man who broke the bank at Monte Carlo. Jack Payne and His Band have made a potted version of Aladdin (Rex 8666) which is as full of gay nonsense and fun as you could wish. And p ease note that the label credits Jack as being both the author and composer! By far the best novelty record of the year is the new " Magic -Disc race game that is being marketed by Decca at half-a-crown. This disc has six tracks and, like previous records of the same sort, yon cannot tell at the outset which track the needle is in ; you hear a voice describing the race very briefly in the same formula every time until the winning horse is announced. The odds are cleverly devised by an entirely Brunswick 2'6 RL. 116 Decca K. 2/6 F. r/6 Regal-Zonaphone MR. r/- Rex r/ - new method. On the label are various odds from evens to ten to one, and also " We sherl "; you a e also given a " Price Selector" in the form of another paper disc which is affixed over the centre of the record. \\'hen the race is run, the `' Price Selector " stops and shows J the odds on the under disc. The banker pays out or receives as the case may be. As a final touch of efficiency you are also given a card with the names of the horses printed on it to enable you to place your bets. It sounds rather a complicated amusem*nt described in so many words, but actually it is extremely simple. the results are attained quickly, and there is enough excitement and suspense to give you a thrill for your money. No party should be without it. Ask simply for the " Magic -Disc " Race Game from your nearest Decca dealer. Comedy, Alleged and Actual (laving decided upon the light music and your race game for the party. you will also want one or two comedy records by well-known comedians to raise a laugh when things are beginning to flag. No one is more infectious in his general air of gaiety and high spirits than Leslie Holmes, and what could be more appropriate a title than lllake it a Party (Regal- Zono. MR1921)? I -le couples this with The Duck Song, but for real fun a little spicy, perhaps, but most of us don't mind that at our party-hear him with Leslie Sarony in L tnpa, Umpa, stick it up your Juniper (Regal-Zono. MR 1920). On the reverse is the story of a Miss Porkington whose resolutions to slim went sadly astray whenever she was confronted with cream cakes. Leslie Sarony puts over two songs, Sweet Fanny Adams and Skid l ley- Dumpty-Di-Doi (Regal-Zono. MR 1,922), with his usual businesslike and si'ck methods, and if you are not moved to uncontrollable laughter, you are, at any rate, aware of a job well done. The same might be said of George Formby. who sings two songs from his film Riding in the T.T. Races and The Isle of Man (Regal-Zono. RI932). This is his fi st Regal record and I thought the accompanying orchestra had not quite got the swing of his sty le-probably due to insufficient rehearsal, a co nplaint which often rears its ugly head in the rush of recording. but which manifests itself surprisingly infrequently in the finished product. A new record by Flanagan and Allen is rather a rare event, but it is an event for all that. Their microphone technique is excellent when one remembers that they are primarily stage artists, and the music -hall stage at that-a far cry from the intimate rerluirements of the mike. On Columbia FB1226 t tev discuss slivers subjects with the customary misunderstandings and explanations and call it all!jigging H"OI"les. On the second side you will hear them singing Bud Flanagan's latest song entitled 11 hat happened to the Breakdown Man. I thong it Max Miller's second record showed signs of inexperience with the microphone. Ile has probably found it very difficult to adapt his personality to this new medium and unless his material is ve y funny ono misses the look of him so much on a record-that saucy face and those outrageous clothes are such a large portion of his success. Max the Auctioneer is not riotously funny. but I feel it is worth waiting patiently for the tip-top record I am sure he will make before long (Rex 8665). In connection with his new record Sex, Sobs and Slaugl ter (Columbia DX719) Sydney Howard is running a competition to find fresh jokes and " gags." The obvious but somewhat unkind retort is that he needs them if this record is a sample of what is at present available. But as the record is also supposed to furnish an example of the sort of timing he wants

38 334?'he GRAMOPHONE January 1936 people to send him, it is a little frightening to think of what he will he inundated with in the way of futile, laboured and pointless jokes. Sydney Howard has built up a big name for himself on the English stage, but 1 am inclined to think that even his most ardent fans will not he satisfied that this is the comedian at his best. The Rural Scene For those who like their hill -billies sung by the manly - voiced Patrick Colbert 1 can thoroughly recommend The Bunkhouse Boys with Colbert in Twenty.lIilcs to owhere and Take me back to my Boots and Saddle (Parlo. F342) : and in the same style. The Rocky Mountaineers in Little Red Caboose behind the Train and Red River Valley and I t 1992 (Columbia FB1249) ; but better still, listen to a real English farmer, Farmer Bailing, singing Maggie! Tie Cows are in the Clover and Fanner Giles on Regal-Zono. bl This is a real breath of country air to unlucky town dwellers. So, too, is Reginald Dixon's organ record of Sir Edward Germans lovely Merrie Eng and " music (Regal-Zono. 3lR1940); this is delightful music airily and daintily played to bring us a foretaste of spring in drear winter weather. On Regal-Zouo. MR,1918 an attempt has been made by the miraculous process known as " dubbing " to collect all Jimmie Rodgers' most famous songs on to one record. I say attempt, because it is obvious here and there that the record is a fake and as such is only a memory of a de ightful singer. On Regal-Zono. MR1943, however, a " new yodelling cowboy star" is featured called Wilf Carter. He sings a Cowboy Lullaby and Sundown Blues in that peculiarly melancholy style that is the way of these people, and alt hot gh he does it all as well as most, he does not seem to have any great qualification for stardom in any sphere. Melodies of the Month Under this heading Len Green plays two more Medleys of popular times on Decca F5798 and 9, and Reginald Dixon does the same sort of thing on the organ of the Tower Ballroom, Blackpool, on Rex They are all good value if you a e wanting a bunch of these ephemeral tit -hits. Another excellent recording of tunes of the moment is by Jack Wilson on Regal-Zono. 31R1944 of a Selection of the music from " The Big Broadcast " and " Top Hat " ; his clever blending of the different tunes in " Top Hat " is as good as anything for the kin f that I have ever heard. He is a pianist definitely to be watched. Patricia Rossborough, too, seems to me to be more pleasing than she used to be ; her style is quieter and more st btle than of old and I could almost have mistaken her playing of the tunes from " Thanks a Million " and " Seeing Stars " (Parlo - phone F355) for Carroll Cihbons or.johnny Green, a compliment which I hopo she appreciates. Singers, Crooners, or What -you -will The latest newcomer to the ranks of musical comedy film stars is Eleanor Powell, who has sot the whole town talking by her marvellous (lancing in " Broadway Melody of 1936." London has been ab e to judge the quality of this new star for itself, but to those of you m ho are still waiting to see this film I would say get a copy of I4.M.V. B8396 and hear, if not see, this girl with the feet of Fred Astaire anti a voice that is much better than you might justifiably expect in one already so gifted. To mark her recording debut she, of course. sings two numbers from the film, You are my Lucky Star and I've got a Feelin' you're Foolin', and she has the good fortune to be accompanied by Tommy Dorsey and His Orchestra. I am sure you will agree that Eleanor Powell is an acquisition to the gramophone world as well as to pictures, and you will he even 400 Leslie Hutchinson more eager than before to see this super -musical for yourselves when it reaches your part of the world. Another film star has also made a record this month ; Betty Balfour sings the numbers from her nem film " Squibs " on Columbia F and while her legions of faithful admirers will he interested to hear her voice, I do not think this can be called a really successful record. Miss Balfour has not altered her style since her early films, and although her singing voice is in keeping with her character as portrayed on the screen. I think the modern generation will find her style old-fashioned and a little simpering. Betty Balfour is a film star turned recording artist ; Binnie Hale is a stage and film star who has had previous experience of the microphone. but she is hardly more successful than bliss Balfour in getting her charm over on to the wax ; on Decca F5815 she sings Did you get that out of a Book? and You don't know the Half of It, both from the film of the play " Hyde Park Corner." The numbers themselves are not worthy' of her and one cannot be enthusiastic about what is so very much a poor imitation of a vital and attractive persona ity. How versatile Anona Winn is! This month she is quite coy in 1 can 11 iggle My Ears and Everytl ing's in Rhythm with My Heart from the Jessie Matthews film "First a Girl" (Rex 8664). \ ou may not altogether approve of Anona in this mood. but you've got to admit that she can portray the mood she is after and there is not a false note from beginning to ene. Elsie Carlisle is versatile, too, in a somewhat different way. She can be the gay lady of the equally gay 'nineties or the moaning blues singer of the nineteen -twenties and thirties. N or just Elsie Carlisle, crooner. Her two records this month show her in the blues and crooning f. categories. On Decca F5764 she sings Ellington's Solitude and Poor Butterfly. I cannot admit that Solitude should ever have been expressed in words, but if you do not agree, then this is a good record of it. On F58I8 she sings Honey - coloured Moon from Henry Hall's film " Music Bath C'harms" and Public Sweetheart \'umber One from " Seei zg Stars." Public &Sweetheart suits her to perfection and I consider this is the best of the batch. Greta Keller, on the other hand, does not even try to be versatile ; she is the crooner par excellence, you know what to expect, and if you don't like it, don't buy her records, tune in to her broadcasts, or pretend to be interested in the news that she has recently passed through London on her way to make some more records in Germany, where she is immensely popular. Some of us like everything she does, however "coney" the modernists may call it, and the fact that she was able to find time to record four titles ii hile she was here is a cause for rejoicing. On Decca F5813 she sings On Treasure Island and In the Dark, and on F5814 I Wished on the loon and When Budapest was Young. I consider In tie Dark and I Wished on the Noon to be the most enjoyable ; and even if you suspect a plot to make you buy both records instead of one, get them just the same because you may have to wait a mighty long time before you get any more. Another visitor from the States is Sam Coslow, tt ho has recorded I've got a Feelin' you're Foolin' and You are my Lucky Star with Geraldo and His Sweet Music on Decca F5805. He is very popular in America and I think we are fortunate to get a record of these two good songs from him while he is with us. And to Geraldo we must say thank you for providing such a sympathetic musical background. Our own Val Rosing also sings You are my Lucky Star coupled with On Treasure Island (Regal-Zono. MR 1924). and he. too, is fortunate in his accompanying orchestra ; it is outstanding this month. Is this the influence of George Scott -Wood at last showing itself?

39 January 1936 The 011A.1/OPIIO.V It; 335 Brian Lawrence is in good form, if somewhat late, with From the Top of your Head and Without a Ilford of Warning (Dacca F5816), while Turner Layton sings In the Dark beautifully coupled. so appropriately. I think, with East of the Sun (Columbia FB1224). I always did like his solo work much better than his duets and it is a real pleasure to hear him in such good voice and all untrammelled. Listen, too. to his " Top Hat " Medley on Columbia FB1223 and to You are my Lucky Star and 3lagic on FB1248. Quite the most remarkable record of the month, hoy%ever, is Bing Crosby's attempt at Adesle Fidelis and Still \'it'll, Holy Night (Brunswick 02054). If it were not rather pathetic it would be utterly laughable to hear this singer who is acknowledged to he the king of crooners making such an awful and complete mess of these two beautiful airs; all his little tricks are here, but they are so utterly out of place that ins cad of being fascinating they are merely irritating and in bad taste. No, we prefer Bing in the sort of thing he can do well. such as On Treasure Islay? I. Take me hack to my Boots and Saddle (02100) and Red Sails in the Sunset, or the reissued Star Dust on What an artist Leslie Hutchinson continues to be-hut, I suppose. once an artist, always an artist, they trey er lose their touch. He sings songs and you remark at the end of the record " What a charming song " ; then you realise that it is a perfectly ordinary song and that it is simply the way he has sung it-as though his whole life depended on your sympathy and appro' al-that has made the song into a miniature work of art. Listen to his singing of Tie Morning After and Love is like a Cigarette (Parlophone FB350) and you will see what I merco. Dick Powell, who has recently been seen in two new musical extravaganzas, " Thanks a DI i I lion " and " Page Miss Glory," sings I'm sitting high on a Hill -lop from the former coupled with a rollicking affair called Don't give up the Ship from a film called " Shipmates Forever " on Decca F582:3, and if you examine the label closely. you will see that no less a personality than Victor Young is in cha ye of the accompanying orchest -a. which explains why the whole thing goes along with such a jolly swing. Curtis and Ames are a new act who have been given a chance to show what they can do on records. I found them just another pair of duettists, but if you want to make up your own mind } ou can hear them in Accent on Youth and By the Wishing Well on I -.31.V. BD:312. Educational Records " Con Moto " Rhythmic Series : Planned by Miss M. G. Davies and Miss M. Storr, M.A. Played by David 13ranson (pia -ioforte). Col. D B (15s.) There is plenty of room for morn recorded music that can be used to advantage in infant schools. Rhythmic training in the classroom cannot go far when the teacher is fettered to a piano -stool: but " the gramophone sets her free." says the Hacfow Report, " to concentrate on the movements oft lie class." This new series is, therefore, particularly welcome --end if it differs outwardly only in degree fro:n the " Let's Pretend " records and the " Playw'ays " series al eady issued by H.J1. V., in application it is of another order. In all three sets the basis is a collection of fragments and miniatures by the masters, but the present pieces are piano recordings, whereas the H.M.V. pieces were played by a small orchestra. The selection is good. and it has been supplemented here and there with a few improvisations by Miss Davies herself. Rings separate t the exercises on t he records as in some of the other educational series. Performance and recording are commendable, though not distinctive. The six records provide material for a course in rhythmic training for pupils between the ages of four and eleven, thus forming a groundwork for the more ambitious Dakrose Eurh3 thmics later on. There is scope for many appreciat ion lessons based on the music itself. A Lucky Dip If you are looking for a few light, records of music that is catchy and possibly familiar you!trig it try any or all of the following : The Maison d'or Salon Orchestra playing Ippolitov's Caucasian Sketches (two of t hem. including The March of the Sirdur) ( Regal -%.ono. AI R1941) : The.fester and The Tea /lolls' Parade played by the Bravour Dance Orchestra (Parlo - phone F:357) ; an unusual orchestra called the Estudiantina Mandoline Orchestra in l3oneheron's Bolero and Mandoline March (Parlophone P:363); two old friends. The Kitten on the Keys and The Parade of the Wooden Soldiers, played by the simply -named Novelty Orchestra (Decca F5819) ; lastly, a rather charming trio Pappy, Ezra and Elton in Red Sails in the Sunset, who are joined by Zeke for Tle Lady in Red (Panachord 25813). Late Arrivals Brief notes on se ne records which have arrived too late for inclusion in their proper sections. Firstly. Grete Natzler in four songs from her first British film, '' The Stucent's Romance " : they are There's a smile in the skies, Ol! Lassie, come. Marching Along and I lost. ºny heart in Heidelberg (Parlophone ), charming y sung in the true Continental fashion and giving a good idea what to expect from the film. Another American recording by The Light Opera Company under Nat Shilkret continuing their series of ['oral Gems. this time f ore " New \loom " (FI.DI.V. C2808) ; and Belle Baker in a glorious skit called Mrs. Goldberg's Bridge Party and in sentimental and somewhat unintelligible mood in Roadway of Romance -all about Broadway, heartbreak, and so on (H.DI.V. 131)3.20). Two records that must not be missed. Two crooners at the top of their form, Phyllis Robins in I'm, in the Mood for Love and Honey -coloured Moon (Rex 8678) and Morton Downey in Thanks a Million and You are my Lucky Star (Rex 8675). Finally, a strange new recording of Rhapsody in Blue by a Boston Orchestra conducted by Arthur Fiedler with one Jesue Maria Sanroma at the piano (II.NI.V. C2806 and 7), about which I suspect that the less said the more likely you are not- to be disappointed. M. E. C. " Let's Go to Paris " : Practical Travel Talks in French. Spoken by Dille. E. R. Monteil. DI. Salaiin and DI. Vigne. H.M.V Complete wit It Text I ook and 11bmn. (18s. 9d). In common with most language courses, this set-which was half expected. since the parallel " Let's go to Germany " records mere issued a few months ago-has the laudable aim of removing that reproach so often heard from foreigners that as Englishman can speak no other language but his own. Assuming that the student possesses a fair grammatical knowledge, these records will enable him to enjoy a French train,journey, a shopping expedition, a visit to a theatre, and so on, and conclude his travels (curiously enough) in a Parisian bear -garden! Appropriate background noises punctuate the conversat ions. but in no way detract from their purpose and enjoyment. it is a little depressing. however, to think that the chemist. doet:nr, and dentist all have to be consulted during a short stay abroad. There is. perhaps; a tendency to cosmopolitanism, since the e are too few distinctive touches either of English psychology or of French peculiarities. But for 18s. 9d. the course offers a wealth of " essential " French which would be of great assistance to students on their first trip to the Continent ; and the records pros ide pract'ce in intonation at a useful speed together with examples of sounds usually wrongly pronounced by the average Englishman. Each record is obtainable separately, while the text -book (published by G. hlarrap & Co.) costs Is. 3d. V. W. J.

40 336 The GRAMOPHONE January 1936 DANCE As with the records reviewed under " Miscellaneous," so with these Dance Records-the primary object of most of you who will be spending your money on records will be home entertainment of yourselves and your friends; therefore you are most likely to want the tunes of the moment that you may have heard in some of the many musical pictures that may ha\ e dazzled you on the si ver screen with their magnificence, the tunes that your favourite broadcasting band has recorded. and any cornea y numbers that, may be worth hearing more than once. Here, then. is a selection from the new records that may help you in your task. In every case the record has been selected because it answe s one of the above demands. I hope some of them will give you pleasure and help to make your party or Banco a success. Ambrose and His Orchestra. Schoolboy Howlers (Decca F5809). An attempt to cash in on the success of Rhymes and its successors. Whether the attempt is successful is up to you, but this is the most imaginative recording with Max Bacon contributing to the fun. Broadway Rhythm and You are my Lucky Star, bot h from the film " Broadway Melody of 1936." \ ery good recordings of bot It tunes and worth your money (Decca F5740). Jack Hylton's Orchestra. Everything stops for Tea from the film "Come Out of the Pantry " and 1V/ten the Guardsman started crooning on Parade (H.M.V. BD511116). Two important things to note here. First the apostrophe-" -lack I1vIton's Orchestra " and not "Jack Hylton and his Orchestra." meaning that his hand are carrying on the good work while he is away in America; secondly, the new series number which II is \Taster's Voice have adopted for their records. I laving taken all that in, you can then got the record for the absurdity about the Guardsman ; it's great fun. Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra. Thanks a Million and Sugar Plum both from the tilt, "Thanks a Million " (I-I.M.V. 13D5001). Good tunes well played, but neither is the number that, this hand plays in its brief appearance in the film. Ilear also, if you are interested in the film or the music, Bob Crosby and His Orchestra. Thanks a Million and I'm sitting high on a Hilltop (I)ecca F5820). The hilltop song is the hest of the lot, but Crosby must be careful-in Thanks a Million he develops a most alarming tremolo and is not always on the note. Unusual for him. Enric Madriguera and His Orchestra. I found a Dream from the film " Redheads on Parade " and IVhen the leaves bid the trees goodbye (li.m. V. BD5000). Two typically well -played American numbers that are charming enough to be worth hearing and buying. Roy Fox and His Band. In. the Dark and Homestead (Decca F5797). Sentimental, both, but how Roy Fox can put those numbe s across! In the Dark is a little masterpiece and Denny Dennis's singing improves monthly. Will Osborne and His Orchestra. That's what you think from the film " King Solomon of Broadway " and RECORDS Paul Pendarvis and His Orchestra. I'm in love all over again from the film " Hooray for Love " (Columbia FB1235). \Vill Osborne's is a band that ranks high in America and you can be sure that his records are first class and u,h's is a good tune with a good lyric. \\ hat more can you want? Harry Roy and His Orchestra. I can wiggle my ears and Everything's in Rhythm with my Heart, both from the film " First a Girl " (Parlophone P339). It is grand to hear such good tunes as these two and to have the satisfaction of knowing they are English, and I can wiggle my ears is one of the most invigorating and lively records that even this bright hand has made for some time. I[ighly recommended. Out of the Rag -bag, Medley (Parlophone F338) and Six- I ight Medley (F343). Old favourites dished up with new sauce and made very appetising. The B.B.C. Dance Orchestra. Honey -coloured Moon, Music Hat It Charms, TI ere's no tune like the present and Just little hits and pieces- all from the film " Music Natli Charms " (Columbia FBI 1.23 and 1120). Naturally Henry Hall and the 1á.13.C. Band have recorded all the numbers front their film and these two are the most like y ones to take your fancy. Honey -coloured Moon is the best tune and Just little bits and pieces s tows off the hand to the best advantage. the little bits and peces being principally solos by members of the band. Carroll Gibbons and The Savoy Hotel Orpheans. I've got a feelin' you're foolin' and You are my Lucky Star, both from the film " Broadway Melody of 1936 " (Columbia I' ). I make no apology for mentioning You are my Lucky Star twice because this recording of it has the stamp of the Savoy Orpheans on it and as such contributes something to dance music which, even though you have already got it coupled wit', Broadway Rhythm, you can still want it coupled with I've got a feelin' you're foolin'-no foolin'. Maurice Winnick and His Orchestra. Love is like a Cigarette anti I send my Love with these Roses (Parlophone F348). And Sailing home with the Tide and A little bit Independent but Easy on the Eyes (F349). Maurice \\ innick can he relied upon to be the first with the news and ht ro he is with four brand new tunes. two at least of which look like certain winners. I leave you to back your fancy for the popularity stakes. Mantovani and His Tipica Orchestra. Love is like a Cigarette and Just a corner of Paradise (Columbia FBI253). If I bad heard this earlier it might have gone higher up in the list, although order is not necessarily all indication of merit ; from all of which you can gather that it is a good record and the band continues to slow that it is a combination in the top class. Orquesta Tipica Francisco Canaro. Tangon and La Copla Portena (Parlophone 0T136). The Tangon is described as a " Nueva Danza," and you don't need a very extensive knowledge of Spanish to guess that that means some sort of new Glance. The rhythm is, as a friend exclaimed to me when he heard it, a cross between a rumba and a tango, or a tango with an exciting and urgent cross -rhythm. Anyhow, it is very attractive and will incite you to invent new steps for your rusty tango. M. E. C.

41 January 1936 The GRA.MOPHONE 337 American Monopoly on Hot Music goes Bang New Parlophone Series proves that British Artists can do Just as Well, if not Better THE words in the above heading seem to be sufficiently startling to make it worth while explaining exactly what it is that has provoked them, and to enable this I want you first of all to glance back to some earlier days. Prior to 1929, Hot records were few and far between, and those that were issued were looked upon as less grotesque only than the handful of wonder -struck enthusiasts u ho enjoyed them. Then Parlophone launched their first " Rhythm -Style " Series, and put a new complexion on the u hole subject. Putting it over Having at their disposal the magnificent and unexploited American Okeh catalogue, they not only chose wisely from it, releasing regularly records so exceptionally good that many are still looked upon as " classics," but by segregating them from the ordinary dance discs, and supporting them with informative literature, gave the music a form of prestige that did more than a little towards inducing the public to realise that it was not inevitably the inebriated noise they had, for want of knowledge, hitherto assumed it to be. That this enlightened way of dealing with the matter was a big success is proved partly by the fact that 138 " Rhythm -Style " discs have been issued during the past six years (and now a 1936 Edition of the series has been started), but even more obviously by the fact that as rapidly as they could obtain the necessary material other companies follow ed the Parlophone lead. As a result, Hot Music under its latest nom de guerre, Swing Music, is achieving the distinction of becoming, together with music that at any rate attempts to swing, a public institution. Progress behind the scenes With the exception of the accompaniments to four saxophone solos by Hawkins, all the 276 titles released up to the end of last year in the various " Rhythm -Style " series were necessarily by Ame ican artists. I say necessarily because, the modern dance music idiom having been created by the American Negroes, what more natural than that they, and the white American musicians in close daily contact with them, should for a while have been the best exponents of it in its more ambitious forms! But for a while does not mean for ever. For some time certain British musicians have been showing astonishing prowess. The full extent of their endeavour and progress has not been revealed to the public, chiefly because even in the more ambitious English efforts the bogy of " commercialism " has generally been near enough to cast its dampening influence over the proceedings. Nevertheless, quietly, behind the scenes, it has been going on, only waiting for an opportunity to show itself, and now, thanks to the Parlophone Company, it has been given that opportunity. With that flair for being the first to take advantage of any new situation for which they have become noted, Parlophone have inaugurated a BRITISH ARTISTS' " RHYTHNI- STYLE " SERIES. By about the middle of the month the first twelve titles (six loin. discs) s Could he WISHING YOU A VERY HAPPY, PROSPEROUS and Musical NEW YEAR on sale. Each disc will be obtainable separately at the price of 2s. 6d., but those purchasing all six will be given, free, a handsome storage \'hum and a booklet containing the full personnels of all the featured groups and brief notes on the performances. Next month it w ill be my pleasure to start reviewing the records, but 1 cannot resist the temptation to say a word or two about them in advance. Some of the combinations are, to put it mildly, unorthodox. For instance, one consists of tenor saxophone, a rhythm section, and (believe it or not) three flutes! Ind as though this instrumentation were not in itself a sufficient novelty, Stanley Black has amused himself writing extraordinary arrangements for it. Even so, for ideas it has little on the groups of more conventional instrumentation. All the featured artists have made themselves conspicuous not only for their musicianship, but also by their creative ability. Some have gone so far as to write their own numbers, which compare more than favourably with the popular " evergreens " of jazz with which they find themselves side by side. Certain of the artists have frankly followed the American example. Others have invented modes of their own. It is the latter which have interested me the most. There is something typically British about them. The English idea I hesitated to write those words. In dance music " typically British " has generally meant painfully corny. The English idea here is anything but that. It has swing in a most desirable sense of the word, sometimes a rather subtle sense, and, if one may judge on these records, it infers music of a good deal better class. You will gather what I mean when you hear Hugo Rignold's immaculate performance of his own composition -Calling all treys. As a piece of music and an example of sheer virtuosity on the violin, it makes many of the things done by Venuti and Grappelly sound almost dowdy. There are other records to deal with in my limited space, but before leaving these Parlophones until we return to them next month, there is one little point I ought to dispose of. Usual disclaimer In case it gets about in the exaggerated guise these things have a habit of assuming, I had better confess that I had a finger in this pie. I plead guilty to having urged Parlophone to give the British musician this chance and to suggesting certain artists. Subsequently I attended the sessions and one or two suggestions I offered were adopted. But you will realise that this was a negligible role compared with that of the performers-so small, in fact, that you need have no fear that what I have written has in any way been influenced by it. Individually, there is not a dull record among the batch. Many are absolutely brilliant. As a collection they should create something of a sensation. Those who think that America still has a monopoly on Swing music can prepare to receive a very big surprise when they hear this latest edition of Parlophone's " Rhythm - Style " Series.

42 338 The GIDAD/OPIIONB January 1936 Four Sides of New Ellington Composition -but Orchestra's brilliance fails to conceal the music's weakness BRUNSWICK Duke Ellington and His Orchestra ( \m. N.) Reminiscing in tempo (Ellington) Four sides (Brunswick s.). Reminiscing is perhaps the culmination of all that Ellington's musicians have discovered in the course of their nusicial careers. What the score calls upon them to do. they do with that musicianship and individuality which have had at least a share in achieving the fame that the band enjoys. On the other hand it is very far from being the culmination of all that Ellington has discovered-at least, let us hope so. line expects a work that is assumed to he important enough to have been spread over four 10 -inch sides to be something musically worth while. Even more sloes one expect this when the work is by Ellington. \s music this work is not aorth while. I say as music. because it may have some other significance. For instance, my good friend 11r. Leonard Hibbs suggests in our contemporar;v,swing M usic that it, nay b e educational- to the extent that Parts I, 2 and 3 are Flliugton's explanations (or confessions) of how he reached part 4. lie even infers that I. 2 and :3 are superfluous, because Part 4 says in better language all that they said less capably. To me it seems that he looks upon I, 2 and 3 only as the not too well given evidence which is hardly worth listening to as it can be heard to better advantage in the summing-up of the learned judge in 4. Personally. 1 can see nothing to support such an explanation. But at least it is an explanation, and in offering it \Ir. Hibbs goes one better than I. I candidly confess I have no idea what Ellington is driving at. and I doubt if anyone else will have until he chooses to give his own explanation. In the absence of this one can only judge the music on its face value. And that is precious little. But things of no value can s mietimes be interesting. In the face of all opposition I confess I found these records entertaining -at times even intriguing. I adntind the individual musicianship. I was tickled by the unusual noises resulting from the so-called modern harmonies, which. while they have no musical value in the composition, give it a bizarre effect. I was fascinated- by the way it progressed without reason. form or relief front the one slow tent lo. And. above all, I was captured by the vivid, rich and ever-changing colours, w hich were none the less apparent because anything much in the nature of a North -while picture failed to materialise from them. If the music appeals to you, you may call it a tone poem. If it doesn't. you may,call it a useless noise. Please yourself. * * a Red McKenzie and His Orchestra (An.) Every now and then (Silver, Sherman and Lewis) (y by Red McKenzie) Georgia Rockin' ( hair (Fisher) (y by Red McKenzie) (Brutrswiek s. lid.). First side just commercial. \ice playing except for doubtful style of clarinet. Sccrind side brighter, but solos nothing to write home about. Afraid Red's going green. COLUMBIA The New Music of Reginald Foresythe (rerner the grass (Foresythe) Melancholy clown (Foresythe) (C'oluntbia F1112:13-1s. (id.). Benny Goodman and J. Muensenberger (clarinets), " Toots " Mondello and H. Schertzer (altos), Dick Clarke (tenor). " Sol " Schoenbach (bassoon), J. Kirby (bass). G. Krupa (drums), and Reginald Foresythe (piano). If you are looking for conventional jazz. steer clear: but it you are interested in music that is different, in the ideas of people who not, only have ideas, but can devise original ways of expressing them, you should get this disc. Reginald Foresvthe's compositions and I think this description may help you to approach them in the manner that will enable you to obtain the greatest enjoyment -are almost, solely musical picturisations of mental moods; that is to say, his endeavours to express in music, not so much the actual things or happenings which am the subject of his titles, but the mental impressions they create for him. You will realise that the trice point here is, of course, that even the most ordinary objects or events imltreass different mentalities in diffemnt ways. 'lake this ease. for instance : The late Sir \Gilliam Eden, Bart,., father of our \I r. \nthonv F den. commissioned the fatuous Iitrtrtit painter, Whistler, to lutist his wife. the noted beauty of her day, Sybil lardy Eden. When the picture was finiahal,sirwilliam, read bluff autocrat of the old days, refused to pay. because, he said. it aas not like Lady Eden. Whistler sued Sir William and in court, said that the pict ire was Lady Eden as he saw her. Sir \1 illiam retorted that if that were so. it still didn't make it, a good portrait, to which Whistler coldly replied that his impression of Lady Men was an Artists impression. The issues seem to be : (a) was \\'histler s talent supreme enough to have enabled him to convey wit It true art istry on the canvas his real impression of his subject :': if so (h) was it too far removed from a normal minds impression to be accepted tas a goal portrait, by the average cultured mentality? and if au (el should he instead has e at tent pled to show Lady Eden as a normal cultunsi taste would have been expected) to see her:' 'laving answered these questions to your sat isfaction, you can apply the questions and the answers to Foresythe'a music. If it is not, the greatest of music, it still scents good enough (which. of course, moat, jazz is not) to merit, consideration on these lines. Incidentally. tau, my laden -Whistler simile is not inappropriate, because :i/nlanchaly clown happens to Is. Forrsythe'r impression of a self-portrait of an American friend of his, a painter by name of Charles (Rain, in clown's attire. Greener the grass is his (Fnresythe'st impression of a pastorale scene. DECCA Lew Davis Trombone Trio Three of a kind (Davis) Three's Company (Davis) (1)ecca F d.). Lew Davis, Ted Heath and Tony Thorpe (trombones), Bert Barnes (piano), Sid Phillirs (celeste), Joe Branne ly (guitar), Max Bacon (drums), and Dick Ball (bass). If you want to hear what a delightful noise three trombones earn make, here's your chance. Perhaps that's wrong. What I ought to have said is what a delightful noise these three trombones can make. There are certainly not three other trombones on this side of the Atlantic who can combine such perfect tone and execution with such good style. Both the tunes have been played by the Trio in the broadcasts by \mbrose's orchestra (of which they are-, should have said were-members), so I need not say more. Get this disc. No one could help enjoying such elegant- offerings. H.M.V. Benny Goodman and His Orchestra ( \nn.) Blue Skies (Berlin) Dear old,southland (Creamer and Layton) \. B8398-2s.lid.). " Toots " Mondello and H. Schertzer (altos), Dick Clark and Arthur Rollini (tenors), Berigan and Nate Kazebier (trumpets). J. Lacey and " Red " Ballard (trombones). Frank Froba (piano), Alan Reuss (guitar). Gene Krupa (drums), H. Goodman (bass). and Benny Goodman (clarinet). They say enough is as good as a feast. but these two sides just prove how wrong t hose people who invent these adages can he. Such immaculate playing would have been enough cause for sprinkling some super. Iati',esabout, but when you have it bestowed on Fletcher Henderson arrangements it becomes a feast, by the side of which a mere sufficiency seems little short of starvation. tmong the parts I liked best is some lovely work by the sax section in Blue Skies. For sheer finish Goodman's is perhaps to -clay the finest saxophone team that has ever existed), and it could never have better material for showing it than that which Ienderson writes. Of course, that's only one litt e point, but it will have to suffice for this month, and anyway it's enough to buy the record for. s * * Ray Noble and His Orchestra (partly Am.) St. Louis Blues (Handy) (v by Al Bowlly) II ay down yonder in \ es, Orleans (y) (H.\r.Y. Bu50tr4-Is. 6d.). George " Pee -Wee " Irwin and Charles Spivak (trumpets), Glen Miller and Wilbur Schweitzenberger (trombones). J. Munenzenherger, Jim Cannon anti Milton Yanner (altos). Bud Freeman (tenor), Claude Thornhill (piano), George Van Eps (guitar), Delmer Kaplan (bass), and Bill Harty (drums). There is no justice. \nd with Benny Goodman at 2a. ('td. and Ray Noble at Is apparently mighty little sense either. Benny may or may not have ti e better and, mark you, I said if- hand. If he has its superiority is no shilling's -worth. Also

43 S January 1936 The GRAMOPHONE 339 I know who has turned out the more entertaining records-at least as regards one side. Benny may have a swell band, and Fletcher Henderson may be a swell arranger. but neither has anything on IVay down yonder. Ray's band cante in for some severe comments not long ago. Some were perhaps deserved, more were probably prejudice. Even the deserved ones are no longer warranted. The band has at last found its form. It you want a record that is full of sparkle, wit and interest, to say nothing of musicianship that compares with the best, get this latest ve sion of.nero Orleans. Et en if you think some of the solos are a little--er-shall we say "commercial ''P- I think you will have to agree that the variety in the bright arrangement and general slickness of the whole thing are more than ample compensation. St. Louis Blues I didn't enjoy quite so much. I think it fails in the very thing that was the main attraction of its backingthe arrangement. There is some good writing in the accompaniment to.\i Bowlly'a vocal, and nothing much to com- plain about for the next inch or so..\frer that it becomes fo red, and anyway Glen Miller might have thought of something a. little less like what he wrote for the i)orseys' Brunswick record (01892) of the same title. r r Adrian Rollini and His Tap Room Gang (Am.)./azz o' Jazz (Burns) (v by Jeanne Burns) A'agnsaki (Dixon and \Varren) (v) (H.M.V. BS397-2s. (id.). " Wingy " Mannone (trumpet). Joe Marsala (clarinet). Putney Dandridge (piano). Carmen Mastren (guitar), Sidney Weiss (bass), Adrian Rollini (xylophone). If you like little Jeanne Burns-rt member her in Got a need for you ( \. 118:182)?- you will find Jazz o' Jazz good entertain- ment. The young lady's diction is not all it might be, but she's got IT in her style and personality. Instrumentally the record is bright, with little bits 1w Rollini's xylophone among its most colourful moments..vayasaki's chief claim to distinction seems to be that it's probably a very good reproduction of what goes on in the Tap Room when the tap's had time to make its influence felt. Sorry this issue won't be out in time for me to recommend it for your New Year's Eve brawl. ORIOLE Quintette du Hot Club de France The sunshine of your smile (Ray) Sweet Sue (Voting) (v by Jerry Mengo) (Oriole LVI04-3s. 6d.). Django Reinhardt (solo guitar), Joseph Reinhardt and Louis Volga (guitars), Roger Chapet (Baas), and Stephane Grappelly (violin). With two choruses given over to the most commercial of crooners. a good deal of valuable times is wasted in Sweet Sue. But the rest is the quintette well up to its usual form with more of l)jango's almost incredible technique on his guitar, and Grappelly and his violin in fine fettle. The choice of Ray's ballad for the coupling may turn out to be a good commercial stunt, but that's about all there is to be said for it. This is not an attempt (I rather wish it had been) to make one of those noses at the tune which Wingy Mannone (Continu(d in middle of next column) Vocal Superb accompaniment for delightful Mildred Bailey Mildred Bailey and Her Swing sand (Ain.) omtday, Sir, el Inn, rl (Spikes) II'ht n doy is done (de Sylva and Katslier) (Brunswick ). Gordon Griffiths (trumpet.). " Choo " Berry (tenor sax). " Teddy " Wilson (piano), Dick McDonough (guitar), Eddie Dougherty (drums). and Arthur Bernstein (hags). Considering what an artist \l Idred Bailey is. it is amazing how few records of hers then. are over here- about, half a dozen Irunswick discs. three (I believe) H.\'I.\'.s, one churn,. with Eddie Lang's orchestra trn Parlophone (" RltythmStyle ") 1:8-I(t. and that is abort the lot. But if there we e twenty timers as many, this new one would I* none the less aeceptta hie. Negro singing is fascinating enough at; any time, but \lildre,l- \leer. Kenneth " Red horvo " Norvelle, to give her her full name-makes it doubly sit. She knows every one of their styles, tricks. subtleties and ehura sterist ics better than the Negroes know them themselves, aml puts them over with a polish and ease that would he an improvement to many of the halter coltured singers. She sings only a t,nuple of choruses on either side, but don't be iiisaplxtinted: the orrhestrit mode than keeps the show going. J don't suppose it would be an exaggeration to say t.ltat ít is the grandest accompanying romhinati.n ever ; in fact, I'm wondering if it were necessary to add the word accrintpwtying." 'Teddy Wilson you know (or ought to know) all about by now, so we caul pass on to Arthur Bernstein. Perhaps you think you know all about him. Weil, you will just take my won! for it that you don't until you have heard these made at Isle of I'opri by swtnging it. A semblance of rhythm is suggested by the maintenance of tempo, otherwise it is more like it ballad transcription. The treatment is original. in some ways Ixrsihly mildly ingenious. but doesn't add anything to jazz or ballad rnusie or for that matter to the guilt tettes reputation for ideas that are not only ditlerent, but good. PARLOPHONE Mills Blue Rhythm Band (Ant. N.) Congo Caravan (Garland) Hide. lied. ride (\lillinder) (v by Lucky Millinder) (Parlophone s. 661.). Well, of till the darted bad Lark! To get so near a century and then miss it by a paltry teu. 11 hat I mean is, Ride, Red. ride, which is just another version of Tidier Ray (without the courtesy of ant arknonledgment to La Rocca), would have achieved the unique distinetio of having been played at a hundred bars a minute if they could just have made another ten. Even without them its over ninety to the minute creates a record, and you will have no doubt about it when you hear the opus. \Vith the assistance of the title, what I was able to hear in the barrage, and t r'eorls. Siteh perfect tempo, tone. style and taste arc, to sty the heist of it. rarities. Dick \Icl)onough has a swell chorus in IVhen dot/ iv done, Gordon Griffiths is more than a youngster with possibilities, tuul Ihnugherty, front )ickie \Veils' Shim - Sham ('hub in Harlem, is such a drummer t hat true wonders how on earth he can have nttuutged to keep out of the constellation Itir so long. 11'hatever you do, don't miss this record. r r + Bessie Smith (with orchestra) (-\rn. N.) Cimoae o piflfooi (Nilson) Tol,r the for a buggy ride (Wilson) (Parlophone R21,16-2s. (id.). Bessie Smith may be a sophisticated young woman. If so, she is the only sophisticated thing about these records. 1.or all their attempt to veil thinly a mild suggestion of the risque', the words are too crude to Is. worth any serious consideration and the melodies and the way they are sung tit:it her pretend to be nor are anything more than primitive Negro Blues. As a Blues singer, Bessie Smith is excellent. I am not so certain about the songs. I have heard Blues that have seemed much more sincere and a good deal more eh:inning. Roth reenmis appear to have been made at the same time as Bessie Smith's Do, your duty tad I'm down in the dumps issued in the Parlophone Second New Rhythm -Style Series (R 17513) a couple of years ago. e r a The Mills Brothers (Am. N.) Lulu's hawk in town (Dubin and Warren) Sweet and slow (Dubin and Warren) ( Brunswick ( s 61.). Good, as usual. final superlative feat of brain power. I Wither that the record is an excuse for Red " Allen to play his trumpet. It stays much for him that lie almost manages to keep cool in the chaos. If this is the hest Parlophone can do to keep their American " Rhythm -Style " Series going. it's just as well they have started a British one. Congo I'ararais brings us back to something like sanity, but sanity can be very dull. Joe Paradise and His Music Lore's Serenade (Hayes and Kurtz) (V by Marjorie Stedeford) Twelfth Street Ray (Bowman) (Parlophone P35(-Is. fkl.). Laurie Bookin (violin), Albert Harris, George Elliott and Joe Young (guitars). George Senior (bass), and Phil Green (piano). Compliments to all concerned on two very practical and tuneful records. No creed for me to say the guitar -playing is excellent-you have only to look at the names-but you may be surprised when you hear what a nice style piano Phil Green platys. A word for young Laurie's violin, too. And not forgetting the man who provides a steady foundation-george Senior.

44 340 The GRA MOP HON F, January 1936 The Washboard Serenaders (X.) Black Eyes (Ferraris) (y) Nagasaki (Dixon and Warren) (y) ('Par ophone F358 Is. 6d.). Well! well! If it isn't that crazy bunch of nigg*rs again who appeared at the Holborn Empire last summer! I had forgotten all about them. Seems Par o - phone must have, too. until somebody had a brain -wave and realised there were still two sides to come out. Poor old Black Eyes. Nothings sacred from the jazz fiends these clays. if you can sort it out from the noise, some of it is not so bad. The guitar player is worthy of a better fate and the drummer gets pretty nimble at times with his washboard and bell plate. Nevertheless I think we might have been spared*kes can be carried too far.. s Clarence Williams Washboard Band (.\m. N.) I've got what it takes (v) What makes me love you so? (v) (Parlophone s. 6d.). We all know jazz had its crude beginnings, but why must we be reminded of them? I prefer to forget that such things could CORRECTION " Fats " Waller and His Rhythm (Am. N.) Sweet Sue (Young) (v by " Fats " Waller) You're not the only oyster in the stew (Burke) (v by " Fats " Waller) 131/298 Is. lid.). Corrected personnels, now verified by Victor, New York, with apologies for last month's errors : Sweet Sue-Hermon Autrey (trumpet). Rudy Powell (sax and clarinet), James Smith (guitar), " Scrippie " Boling (drums). Charles Turner (bass), and " Fats " Waller (piano). You're not the only oyster-autrey (trumpet). Eugene Sedric (clarinet), Albert Casey (guitar), Harry Dial (drums), Charles Turner (bass), and " Fats " Waller (piano). ever have happened. And at half -a -croon a time I expect most others will. I refuse to take seriously the words " Race Series " which adorn the labels, but if Series is an indication that more records like this are to be foisted on us, I would advise Parlophone to think again. REGAL-ZONOPHONE The Six Swingers I'm livin' in a great big u -ay (McHugh and Fields) (v by Marjorie Stedeford) Truckin.' on down (Porter and Blake) (v by Marjorie Stedeford) (Regal-Zonophone?I R s.). Fred Gardner (saxes and clarinet), Billy Farrell (trumpet), J. Flemming (trombone), J. Young (guitar), Jock Jacobson (drums), Dick Escott (bass), and George Scott -Wood (pianist -director). The Swingers well up to form in two more of Scott -Wood's bright arrangements. Jock.Jacobson. a newcomber to the outfit, proves himself to be a grand little drummer and Billy Farrell's trumpet -playing is just about ideal for the type of thing-neat but not gaudy. as the monkey is reputed to have said, and a nice neat swing a ithal. Ike " Yowse Suh " Hatch and His Harlem Stompers Love's Serenade (Hayes and Kurtz) (y by Ike Hatch) Some other time (Coslow and Ilda) (v by Ike Hatch) (Regal-Zonophone MR194-1s.). Harry Smith (clarinet), Laurie Bookin (saxophone), George Elliott (guitar), Max Lewin (drums), George Senior (bass), and Phil Green (piano). ])ear Ike,-You're not exactly a re- incarnation of Caruso, hut I've heard worse singers. And I'll even put up with you when you go all Ted Lewis just to hear your chuckle in that chorus you patter of Some other time. it's a neat little band you've got, too, isn't it? \ our pianist mistakes himself for a waterfall sometimes, but there is something to be said for waterfalls. They tinkle and remind me of fairies. But, Ike, vouse ain't no sweet man fairy. Mouse ain't got no wings-yet. Youse jus' one big black pic'ninny, youse is. His Park Av noo stuff ain't yo' stuff. Where's tat " Yowse Suh " youse talks so much 'bout? Boy, has youse forgot (le Shim -Sham so soon? Take rte boys up next Sat.dy night and show 'ens de life. Instrumental Show 'em house youse spin dat high hat o' yowse, an' next time let's have li'l bit more o' de real " Yowse Suh "-from everybody. Yowse Suh! REMINDER The complete personnels of practically all the 268 records issued in the Parlophone " Rhythm -Style " Series to the end of 1935 are contained in the booklet compiled by Edgar Jackson and obtainable from all Parlophone dealers. Price 9d. REX Cab Calloway and His Orchestra (Am. N.) Somebody stole my gal (\\ ood) (c by Cab Calloway) You Dog (Hover and Calloway) (s by Cab Calloway) (Rex s.). Heaven help the sailors (and sue, and you) on a night like this. New Teddy Wilson and Joe Sullivan Solos Teddy Wilson (Am.) Piano solos Every now and then. (Silver, Sherman and Lewis) It never dawned on tae (Coots and Lewis) (Brunswick s. lid.). Joe Sullivan (Am.) Piano solos Little Rock getaway (Sullivan) Minor Mood (Sullivan) (Brunswick s. lid.). It isn't entirely to save space that I have slighted the two most famous Swing pianists by lumping their records together. The fact is. 1 am not so certain that they deserve more than a mildly complimentary nod. Mind you. not. that the records are not good. Neither Sullivan nor Wilson at his worst could give a had performance. And they are not at their worst. But they are not at their hest. They should be. One expects it when they have records to them- selves. Instead, f hale heard them play much better in choruses a ith bands. Is Genuine South American Artistes Canción a Guarino and Són de Amor (Son) by Rico's Creole Band (both v in Spanish by Chiquito). (hi.\l.v. GV36-I s. í3d.) Mon. Loup. by Rico's Creole Band (v) (Coupling-by Harry Sosneck's Edgewater Beach Hotel Orchestra, not recommended). (JIM.\r. GV32-ls. lid.) Isabelita and Main Aitn.é, doudou nioin by Rico's Creole Band (v's respectively by Jean (race and the Orphelians). (H.\I.V. GV35---ls. lid.). Fado do A mor and Sombra de Cuba by Don Barreto and His Cuban Orchestra. ( Decea F5769-1s. 6d.) 10. Recommended Rumbas this the reason? i)o they need the inspiration of other musicians? It may be. Ninny artists (lo. Or is it the tunes? Perhaps in the case of \\ ilson. His titles are the usual Tin -Pan - Alley superficialities. Ile plays them neatly. His delightful touch and clean execution are undeniable. His ideas are pleasant. That is all. There is little atmosphere and less inspiration. Sullivan plays his own compositions. His records are more interesting in consequence. Even so, there is something lacking. Minor.Mood is culled from Rachmaninoff's Prelude in C sharp minor. It is very nearly pretentious. Pre entiousness is often a cloak for lack of sincerity. One is seldom sincere %% hen knowing that his work is based on that of another. little Rock getaway is musically the best of the four sides. Naturally so. A good artist playing his own composition. The simple laws of nature are inexorable. La Tortuguita (coupled with La Bordadoratango) (both v) by Orquestra Tipica Roberto Firpo. (Parlophone-Odeon 0TI34-2s. 6d.) British and North American Artistes Beneath the curtain of the night and Cuban.Moonlight (both y in Spanish) by Don Miguel and His Cuban Music. (Columbia FBI 146- I s. 6d.) Rumba Tambah by Don Ramon and His Cuban Orchestra and The Lady tin Red (y) by Geraldo and His Rumba Orchestra. (Columbia I'll s. 6d.) EDGAR J(cxson.

45 January 1936 The GRAJJOPIIOVE 341 MORE PROGRAMME BUILDING A PROGRAMME OF CHAMBER ENSEMBLE WITH VOICE Submitted by HENRY R. HUBBARD, of New Jersey, U.S.A. la. William Byrd ( ): (1) Pavanne, (2) Galliard. (Victor 7873.) Henry Purcell ( ): Chaconne. (Victor 7873.) flayed by a consort of viols and harpsichord. Time, nine minutes. 1b. Matthew Locke ( ): String Quartet No. 6, for four Viols, transcribed for string quartet by Peter Warlock. (NGSI43.) Time, eight minutes. The English composers of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries produced a large quantity of excellent music for chamber ensembles. Its outstanding characteristic is simplicity of form combined with complexity of counterpoint. So skilful were these early contrapuntists that their art w as actually self-effacing; the music flows so spontaneously that one is not conscious of the intricately interwoven parts, only of the rich texture. Much of this chamber music was written for ensembles of four, five and six viols in the form of Suites, sets of movements based upon the old dances. The most elaborate movement of the Suite was the introductory Fantasia ; the following movements differed in tempo and rhythm. Frequently the Pavanne and Gaillard were conceived as a pair of movements based upon the same theme, the Pavanne treating it in double, the Gaillard in triple rhythm. The Chaconne is a series of contrapuntal variations upon a reiterated theme in triple rhythm, in w hich the theme may shift from one voice to another. The soft, veiled tone of they iols is a perfect medium for the expression of the delicate beauty of this old music. The Quartet of Matthew Locke consists of Fantasia, Courante. Ayre, Sarabande. In their wholesome, good humour, their abundant vitality and their contrapuntal ingenuity, these movements are worthy puedecessors of those in the Suites of Bach and Handel. Ludwig van Beethoven : Quartet, F major, Op (H.M.V. DB ) Time. thirty-two minutes. The modern string quartet attained its perfection in the last quartets of Beethoven. In these wonderful compositions Beethoven achieved complete equality of expression and freedom of movement among the four instruments, together with a concentration of thought hitherto unattained in symphonic writing. At times, however, he seemed to hay been attempting to express something beyond the limits of musical speech, a struggle which resulted in passages quite incomprehensible to those of his generation. The Quartet, Op. 1:75, is Beethoven's last composition in this form. There are four movements : 1. Allegretto. Terse, economical of thematic material, but eloquent in its restraint. 2. Vivace. k rough little scherzo, prophetic of modern music in its development from two insignificant germs. 3. A deeply brooding, transcendent Lento such us Beethoven wrote only in his last years when, on account of his deafness, he had withdrawn into the communion of his own thoughts. 4. Grave: I llegro. Preceding the movement Beethoven had written on the score two musical phrases accompanied by cryptic utterances : G, E, A flat, " Must it be? " A, C, G ; G, B flat, F, " It must be! It must be! " Upon these two phrases, together with a tl ird theme which appears later, the entire moy ement is built. \\ hat is the meaning? The enigma is capable of two interpretations, one serious, even tragic - Fate, Struggle, Resignation ; the other, humorous. The listener must choose the interpretation which hest accords with the impression which the music makes upon him. Intermission, ten minutes. Johannes Brahms: Clarinet Quintet, B minor, Op (Columbia L2228 :32.) Time, thirty-eight minutes. Brahms had thought of ending his creative life with the Strit g Quintet, Op. 111, when his imagination was again kindled by the extraordinary clarinet -playing of Muhlefeld. The result of this new stimulus was the composition of four fine chamber works, the two Sonatas for Clarinet and Piano, Op. 120, the Trio for Clarinet, Violoncello and Piano, Op. 114, and the great Quintet for Clarinet and Strings, Op These works are noteworthy for their intellectual vigour and for the mellowness of expression that results from a lifetime of work enriched by varied experience. In the Quintet the clarinet is not treated as a solo instrument with string obbligato, but merely as one of five voices, contributing its own strand of warm colour to the design. This work is outstanding among Brahms' compositions in its dramatic quality. It has a vivid coloration, an emotional poignancy, not often found in his music. The prevailing mood is one of unsatisfied longing, rising to climaxes of passionate utterance and sinking in quiet resignation. I. Allegro. The sombre beginning and close are intensified by the yearning of the second theme. 2. Adagio. In this movement the yearning is etherialised and ecstatic. \Vhen the Quintet was first heard Brahms was criticised for writing such orchestral passages as the rhapsodic clarinet cadenzas thrown into relief by shimmering string tremolandos. Such effects, the critics claimed, were not legitimate in chamber music. a. Asdanlino Presto. A mood of tranquillity follows the poignant emotions of the \Negro and Adagio, but with the presentat'on of the theme in a new aspect (in diminution) the music becomes agitated. Before the movement closes the composer returns to the tranquil mood of the first measures. 4. Con Moto; a Theme with Variations. Of this form Brahms was a master. He knew how to evoke from the content of his theme visions of great beauty. In the last of these variations the main theme of the first movement reappears, becoming an integral part of the musical tissue and dominating the Coda which ends, as does that of the first movement, in restrained grief, rather than in resignation. Intermission, three minutes. Peter Warlock : The Curlew. (N.G.S ) Time, twenty minutes. The essence of chamber music is the equal participation of all the component parts of the ensemble. Most lieder cannot be considered as true chamber music, for even though the accompaniment be played by a chamber orchestra, the instruments do not participate equally with tl e voice. but merely furnish an appropriate background. Because of this necessity for equal participation by all the parts. genuine chamber music for human voice and instrumental ensemble is rare. Cobbett lists only about seventy works. In `' The Curlew." a setting of four of Yeats' h rival poems for string quartet, flute, English horn and tenor voice, Peter Warlock has written real chamber music of a high order. "The C urlew " is not a song cycle. but rather a septet in four divisions, free in form, and assimilating rather than dominated by the form of the poetry. Warlock's score and Yeats' poems transport us into the shadowy, legendary world of Celtic folk -lore, in which the curlew and the sedge, the wind and the moon become dread symbols of hopeless love and harbingers of death. By its subtlety, its elusiveness, its suggestion of the voices of Nature, the music creates an atmosphere of unreality as of distant marshy lake shores and forested hills when the grey -blue t wilight is descending and the moon, invis'ble, calls from the black water. Total time, 120 minutes. PROGRAMME SUBMITTED BY SIGNOR PIERO MOSCONI Signor Piero Mosconi's interesting and professedly highbrow programme is directed at the " intelligent listener not without culture " as well as the expert musician. The first part is in the nature of an historical progression through the various forms of music from the fifteenth century to.1. S. Bach, who laid the foundation of the great period which is exemplified in the second part. PART I. J. N. Geoffroy - Tombeau en forme d'allemande. Clavicembalo. Anthologie Sonore 8. A. Dornel-Le pendent d'oreille. Anthologie Sonore 8. \lbert-west Lied. Canto, Tynaire. Lumen W. Franck-Pasioulied. Lumen G. Frescobaldi-Toccata per l'elevazioni. O gano. Anthologie Sonore Pachclbel-Preludio Cora le. " Von Himme both." Organo. H.M.V. F3143. D. Buxtehude-Fuga in fa magg Organo. H.N.V. F3143. I'. H. Frlebach-Ihr gedauken. Canto Le Marc'Hadour. Col. LF.X343. P. H. Erlebach-Schwaches Hertz. Canto Le Murc'Iladour. 13AM2. P. H. Erlebaeh-1 l immel, du weist meine Klagen. Canto Le 31arc' I1adour. Col. LFX34:3. D. Scarlatt i -Sonata in mi min. Clavicembalo. H.M.V ). Scarlatti-Sonata in fa magg. W. Laandowska. H.M.V. DB4965. G. S. Bach-Aus Liebe will mein Ileilad sterben. E. Schumann. H.M.V. 1)1410. G. S. Bach Sonata in fa min, No. 5. Per piano e violino. Col. 1.X P%RT II..1. Braluns-Concerto in re min. Piano e orch. H.M.V. DB ('. Franck-Variazioni Sinfoniche piano e orchestra. Col. LX Lalo-Sinfonie Espagnole. Violino e orchestra. Menuhin V. DB

46 342 The CORA MOP/1011E January 1936 Technical Talk WHAT IS THIS HIGH FIDELITY? -II by P. WILSON (Continued from page 301) DURING recent years several important additions have been made to our knowledge of hat is required to reproduce all audible sounds in such a way as to be indistinguishable from the original. Extensive analyses have been made by various workers, mostly in America. and the results of their experiments have been published in I lie Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. the Bell Technical Journal, the Proceedings of the Institute of Radio f$ngineers, and the Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, during the past five or six years. These analyses hat e proceeded in tie first place to establish the characteristics of the natural sounds, then to reproduce those characteristics accurately, and finally to vary the reproduction so as to determine what amount of variation is at al either by direct comparison or by memory. The requirements for accurate reproduction unity 1st MI ntmarised as follows : 1. The frequency range of the transmitting and reproducing system must extend from 211 to about cycles per second if all sounds are to be reproduced : but most instrununts and speech can be faithfully reproduced with a frequency range from 50 to 10,000 cycles per second. Typical exceptions are the organ and the double bass at one end of the scale, and noises such as hand -clapping at, the other. \loreover. within the range of frequency. the response should he uniforms : that is, with a variation of not more than one decibel. 2. The volume range from pp to ff should be at least 40 decibels for speech and 711 decibels for music. This means that the energy ratio between the loudest and the softest. sounds must he of the order of ten millions to one! Clearly. to appreciate such a wide volume range in comfort, a noiseless environment is essential on the one hand, and. on the other. the listening room should be of the same diva nsions as that in which the original performance is being given. 3. Throughout this volume range and this frequency range anplittale distortion must he kept below 5 por cent. for direct comparison and 1(1 per cent. for comparison by memory ; but if third harmonic distortion predominates. not more than half these amounts are permissible. The longer the frequency range in the treb e, the moro evident amplitude distortion becomes. Thus, if the frequency range is limited to 5,000 cycles, even 15 per cent. amplitude distortion is not. apparent without direct comparison, and hardly so oven then. 4. The reproduction must he binaural, otherwise it becomes cramped. To achieve this, several reproducing channels, each with its own microphone, amplifier and loudspeaker, are necessary ; and each of these chatenels mast have identical characteristics as at (I), (2) and (3) above. Even when all these requirements!mvo been fulfilled, room comfit ions both at the studio and at the listening end are apt to upset the balance. For particular types of sound there are limits within which the reverberation time must fall if the reproduced sound is to be neither " flat " nor " echoey." Having regard to the stringent character of many of these requirements, it is clear, as I indicated last month, that accurate reproduction is impossible save in conditions t rat render it valueless. But the ear is a tolerant organ, and in sound reproduction wo are not so much concerned with accuracy as with aesthetic satisfaction. Our standard of values is measured, not in terms of percentages, cycles per second, or decibels, but in less clearly defined ~slit ions. Our scale might thus be something like this : Delightful, Comfortable, Tolerable. Uncomfortable. Intolerable. It is easy to fill it out more fully, and the actual words do not matter. The sensations clo. After all, our ears hear an origina assemblage of sounds within a wide range of different conditions. It is a commonplace that there is no " best seat " in a concert -hall, nor are there two seats f om which the sounds are exactly alike. The next step in the analysis of reprodr ction is therefore to examine practical listening conditions, discover their inevitable limitations, and determine what modifications of the " ideal " or " abstract " requirements, as indicated above, are necessary to give the greatest satisfaction to the greatest number of listeners. I am not so sure about the last few words. Should the criterion he the satisfaction of the greatest number of folk, or is normal hearing like nor nal eyesight-a rare phenomenon considerably different from the average? I'must leave our philosophers to fight, it ow., knowing full well that trey are sure to light in any case. Let us in the meantime look in our innocence at some of the inevitable eharacte.astics of listening conditions. Here, I think, the first important point to notice is that the greatest amount of listening to reproduced music will he done either in small rooms or in cinemas. We are by no means justified in assuming that the same conditions apply to both types of listening. There is, indeed, a good deal of evidence to show that they are vastly different ; that is one reason why public demonstrations of equipment designed for use in home conditions so often fall fiat. The point is important because the greater part of the experimental work that has been done in this connection has been concerned with motion picture conditions. In what follows 1 shall ignore this type of listening almost entirely and devote myself to home conditio is. Here, two or three limitations are at once apparent. In the first place, the permissible rango of volume is very much less than the.70 decibels referred to above. I understand that the range of C. transmissions is something rather less than 30 decibels, and there are very coisiderable technical difficulties in broadcasting more than 40 decibels satisfactorily. For records, the range is even less. some oft tese difficulties might be overcome by an auto natie contraction and expansion arrangement_ what H.M.V. have called Contrast Amplification-by which the volume rango is deliberately contracted in transmission according to a definite law (for example, by taking the square root which would hah e the decibel range) and expanded again iu rev rodhction by the inverse law. This, however, in itself is not free front difficulty, as a consideration of the power output required will readily show, and. in and case, it ignores the fact that, most living -rooms will not stand a large volume range. Here, again, we must bear in mind that there are two welldefined types of listener. One type, and it is not by any means confined to the jazz fiend, likes to hear a lot of nose, or, at any rate, big cont rusts. The other type finds the greatest satisfaction in quiet music ; and here 1 am thinking rather of those good folk of keen perception who are thrilled by the patterns in music and not of those who use it as a background to casual corlversat ion. These divergences from the conditions of an original performance are wide enough in all conscience, and, as we shall see, they are not the only ones. flow can we reconcile these with 'any not ion of high fidelity? (To be continued)

47 Jauvary 1936 The GRA.110P110 NE XIII 6, r.! = At - a 4 } c o M For full information write to-the Marconiphone Company Ltd., 210 Tottenham Court Road, London, W.1.

48 r - XI The GRAMOPHONE January 1936 = P." - -1` -++ 7/ &tth -Le `7/zivale What do you look for first in a Radiogram? Isn't it the best quality reproduction possible on 'Programmes and Records? Well, that is exactly what you do get with the BUSH TRIODE RADIOGRAM. Of course, you get a good deal more besides, a high degree of selectivity and a very intriguing tuning dial, to mention but two Ask a Bush Appointed Dealer for full details - and we think you will thank us for the suggestion. GUARANTEED FOR 12 MONTHS A 5 -valve, 7 -stage Superhet for A.C. Mains. Full delayed A.V.C. Triode Output. 12 -inch high-fidelity energised M.C. Speaker BLI5HIRADI GAUMONT-BRITISH PRODUCT 26 GNS A WOODGER ROAD, SHEPHERDS B U S H, L O N D O N, W.12

49 . January 1936 The GRAMOPHONE 343 TECHNICAL REPORTS e,= 1e % Web.% +:41,1,11*..,;,...,.-.. 3' 11 The Murphy "28" Radio -Gramophone f r t j 1.,111 d Price 32 IOs. Before proceeding to pass any comments on this Murphy " 28 " radiogram we must first attempt to explain away an error which occurred in the specification in the report of the "28" console receiver published in the November issue. How on earth both motor and pick-up came to be included in the specification of a console receiver goodness only knows, but there they are. Perhaps it was sheer anticipation of receiving the " 28 " radiogram, or the effect of a " single-track mind," probably the latter. However, both pick-up and motor are in their proper place this month ; these components, a higher power consumption and, of course, a different type of cabinet constitute the only basic differences between the "28" console and this radio - gramophone. Perhaps we had better deal with the cabinet first, for we are convinced that the internal lay -out and construction have an important effect on the tonal quality in general. To save unnecessary explanations we give an illustration of the interior arrangements. It will be seen that the cabinet is divided into four compartments : one houses the receiver chassis ; beneath this is the power pack ; side -by -side with the receiver compartment is the gramophone motor ; and beneath this is the speaker compartment. Thus, raw A.C. of high voltage is isolated from all grid circuits and the speaker is virtually in a separate cabinet where '. ibrations set up by the vibration of the diaphragm can have no ill effect on the valves and components in the receiver. The possibility of wood resonance is dealt with in the usual but thorough 3lurphy, fashion by lining the whole of the baffle area with thick fibre -board. Air column resonance, too, is minimised by leaving the speaker compartment acoustically open and by restricting the depth of the cabinet to as small proportions as are compatible with other mechanical dimensions of the equipment. Note, too, that the speaker is well away from the floor. Altogether most sensible and convenient arrangements. Now as to the instrument's performance. The radio efficiency is similar to that of the " 28 " console receiver : the selectivity and range are adequate for all normal requirements and the precautions taken to ensure a reasonably clean background and a minimum of fading and mutual interference between Specification. 11.F. Stage :-Mazda AC/VP1 Valve. Frequency Changer :-Mazda AC/TP Valve. 1.F. Amplifier :-Mazda AC/VP! Valve. Second Detector :-11azda V914 Valve. Noise Suppressor and L.F. Stage :-Mazda AC SPI Valve. Power Stage :-Mazda.-IC/2 Pen Valve. Power Output :-3 Watts (approx.). Automatic Tuning :-Mazda V914 Valve ; Mazda AC MP' Valve. Rectifier :-Mazda UU3 Valve. Loudspeaker :-Electro -Magnet M.C. Speaker Coupling :-Transformer. Motor :-Synchronous. Pick-up :-Needle -Armature. Wave Range :-19:-5.0 and 900-2,000 Metres. Voltage Range : A.C. ; 50 Cycles. Consumption :-110 Watts (approx.). Automatic Tuning, A.V.C., Tone Control Switch and Provision for Auxiliary Speaker. stations function well. The automatic tuning circuit, too. about which we commented in the November issue, never fails to 1)erfor:n its allotted duty of accurately pulling the receiver into tune for the reception of any given station and so ensuring that the best possible quality is obtained. On radio there seems to be cleaner articulation in the lower register and perhaps a brighter tone in the treble than the " 28 " console exhibits. Comparing the reproduction of records with that of the A26 radio -gramophone, which me happened to have in the office, the " 28 " showed a considerable improvement in breadth and depth of tone. The bass is more prominent, and having regard to the strength, as distinct from the range, of the treble, this extension of the lower frequencies is productive of a most satisfactory tonal balance. Very much more bass would be too much. When reproducing symphonic works at large volume levels, in which there are movements for massed strings, one can detect a certain hardness or brittle quality, which it may have been possible to mitigate had the tone - control been of the continuously variable type. On the whole we are inclined to the opinion that the quality of reproduction gi\ en by this " 28 " radiogram is somewhat superior to that of the console or --u to any previous 1 e.. Murphy instrument. The differences in some The internal layout of the "28 " respects are most marked and in others they are not so appreciable. but anything. however small, which has a favourable effect on reproduced music will, no doubt. he welcomed by all ; and he e, since the main standard of comparison is the excellent tonal quality of the " 28 " console, just that little extra refinement counts for a good deal.

50 344 The GRAMOPHONE January 1936 The Columbia Console Receiver, Model 358 Specification. Frequency Changer :-Marconi.1/140 Valve. L.F. Amplifier :-Marconi VMS4 Valve. Dector and L.F. :-Marconi.1/ 11D4 Valve. L.F. Coupling :-R.C.C. Transformer. Price 17 gns. Power Stage :-Marconi.P.7'.4 Valve. Power Output :-2 Watts ;(approx.). Rectifier :-,Marconi Ill U12 Valve. Loudspeaker :-Electro-Magnet M.C. Speaker Coupling :-Transformer. Wave Range : and 1,000 2,000 Metres. Voltage Range : A.C Cycles. Consumption :-70 Watts (approx.). Silent 7'uning, Anti -Static and Tone Controls,Q.A.V.C., Mains Aerial and Provision for Pick-up and Auxiliary Speaker. This Columbia snperhet receiver is of the four -valve, six -stage type which. during the past year or two, has proved so popular with manufacturer and general public alike. It is popular with the manufacturer because it presents no technical difficulties and can be made under massproduction conditions with 1 a high degree of uniformity k 1, ii alt t 1 and it is popular with the public because of its cornparatively high performance and, inversely, its fairly low price. This particular model, being of the console type and consequently allowing of a larger bathe area than is possible in a table type receiver, is capable of maintaining a clean and articulate tone at fairly large volume ' --, ti levels, as well as providing entertainment from a variety of European radio stations. Moreover, the background noise -to-music ratio can be reduced to a low level, and in some cases interference from stations of low field strength can he entirely eliminated by the adjustment of the silent tuning and anti -static controls. Thus, programmes that otherwise may have been valueless as entertainment can be revered fairly free of extraneous sounds. Since the instrument is fitted with a mains aerial, which provides a strong enough signal for the reception of at least half a dozen transmissions (and without an earth connection), it can he transported from room to room. The best results, however. both as regards efficiency and quality of reproduction, are only obtainable with an outdoor aerial and earth connection. Note: a diode signal rectifier gives the most nearly linear rectification when handling a strong signal. As a reproducer the 358 attains pretty near the same standard as the 621 radiogram, which we reviewed in the November 1935 issue. Here, again. for the majority of transmissions there is always a little high -note response in hand ; the only exceptions being very heavy orchestral works and grand organ broadcasts. In these, the most satisfactory balance of tone is obtained with the tone -control set for maximum treble. This type of broadcast reveals also that there is a tendency for a low -frequency discoloration, but it only becomes obtrusive at comparatively large volume. At the other end of the scale the quality is clean and definite; strings and wood -wind are not too hard and are clear and intelligible, though a little more definition here would hate been welcome. Altogether a likeable instrument. l I t 7, The Columbia Console The Rola G.I2 Loudspeaker Price E7 15s. Apart from the introduction of piezo-crystal loudspeakers, there have been no fundamental speaker developments for some considerable time. Nor does the near future promise anything of a startling nature. This does not mean that loudspeaker technique is at a standstill ; far from it. Most of the experiments, however, have been concerned with modifications of earlier ideas, such as the size, shape and material of diaphragms, the method of suspension, the physical dimensions of the spoec i -coil in relation to the gap, etc. The improvement in quality has been more marked in some cases than in others. An examination of this Rola speaker reveals at once that the details in speaker design-the balance between speech -coil and diaphragm, the cone suspension and centring device, etc.-have received a good deal of attention ; and listening to the speaker confirms our first impressions that the care taken is amply justified. The first thing that strikes one about the reproduction is the cleanliness of the whole characteristic both at normal volume levels and when the speaker is being fed wit inputs of the order of 6 to 8 watts. Another point is that large inputs do not appreciably affect the balance of tone ; there is little over -accentuation or hardening of the treble register. This in itself is significant of smoothness of the speaker's characteristic, for if resonances were prominent they would be emphasised at large output levels. We hale no doubt that the range of frequencies which the speaker is able to reproduce effectively is a particularly long one ; the strength of heterodyne whistles when the speaker is used on a local station receiver tell their own little story with regard to the high notes, but the individual character of the instruments of a symphony orchestra-he timbre and firmness of the double basses, the nasal tone of the 'cello, the sourness of the oboe, etc.-shows the best analysis of both range and quality. Strings, too, are well reproduced ; in fact. the only thing we missed was just that extra shade of celicacy and wispiness which is so easy to talk about and so difficult to attain. \Ve admit this is being hypercritical, but this instrument is a high fidelity model. Later on in our tests we had an opportunity of trying the speaker in conjunction with a Rothertne -Brush 155 tweeter speaker and a balancing circuit consisting of a 05 mfd. condenser and a 25,000 -ohm potentiometer. The combination not only produced that little extra something in the treble, but showed an improvement lower down the scale, and especially :- in the deepest bass. The quality was excellent. Actually two speakers were tried, one an A.C. model with valve rectifier and smoothing equipment, and the other a D.C. model with 1,000 - ohm field coil. The results were almost identical ; if any thing, the 1,000 - ohm model was s ightly more The Roll G.12 efficient. For the mechanical construction and general finish we award full marks ; it is both robust and neat. The price given at the head of this review applies to the A.C. speaker; the D.C. model, which is atailablo with any value of field -coil resistance, costs 5 10s. A speech -coil impedance of 8 ohms is common to both models. 1

51 January 1936 The GRAMOPHONE 345 The Stentorian Duplex Speaker Price 4 guineas In some ways this particular Stentorian speaker is similar to the Senior model reviewed below ; e.g., it is of the low - impedance permanent magnet type. it is fitted with the same ingenious device for quickly matching the speech -coil impedance to almost any receiver output, and the diaphragm is of similar type and size. In other respects the speaker differs considerably from the Senior model and, inched. from any other type of speaker we know of. Actually. there are two speakers within the confines of a single permanent magnet and cone assembly. Hence the name " Duplex." One is an ordinary mo' ing-coil P.31. speaker and the other is a moving -coil high -frequency horn speaker. The method of combining the two is one of the most sensible and practical ideas we hay e come across. The centre pole of the magnet is hollow : to the rear of the magnet is fitted a tiny metal diaphragm and speech -coil and at the front end of the centre pole a small bakelite or ebonite horn is fitted. Thus. one magnet provides the flux for both speakers. and the fact that the t weeter is situated in a position relative to that part of a speaker diaphragm which radiates the high frequencies most strongly ensures almost, perfect fusion of high and low notes. There is also one other point to be noticed : the high notes are projected further into the room, as it were, by virtue of the directional properties of the small horn. Each speech -coil is fitted with a volume -control so that the output from each can be controlled independently ; and so it is possible to obtain a satisfactory balance according to the user's own personal tastes and according to the receiver used and the acoustics of the room in c o which the speaker is located. n From the designer's point of view the arrangement lass the advantage that the The Stentorian Duplex Speaker mass of the large cone and coil assembly is of less importance since it only reproduces the lower frequencies. In practice the combination works well ; the high -note range is.particularly good and extends well above cycles. But owing to the fact that the bass is relatively weaker-an energised low -frequency speaker would improve this full advantage cannot be taken of the high -note range. and so for the best tonal balance the tweeter range has to be attenuated by means of the volume -control. However. once the matching has been carried out correctly and the tweeter output carefully balanced with that of the low -frequency speaker, the combination is capable of giving good results. Particularly is the tweeter effect noticeable when reproducing items which have a fair transient content. The Stentorian Senior Speaker Price 63s. 6d. Although this instrument is primarily designed as an auxiliary speaker to an existing receiver or radiogram, it may also be used as the parent speaker, since it is fitted with the necessary matching transformer. Not only is the transformer suitable for use with single -valve power stages-triode or pentode but it can be incorporated in the anode circuits of sets with push-pull power stages with equal success. Many- of the p esent-day speakers which are sold as separate components can be used in a similar manner, but few are provided with the facility for matching speech -coil imwdance to the optimum load of the power stage so simply and expediently. Fixed to speaker chassis are two switches and five terminals ; one switch is for cutting out the multi -ratio input transformer so that the speech -coil can be directly connected to a low impedance output, the other switch is a selector arrangement which enables any one of the nine step-down ratios provided to be used. It is also possible to vary these ratios by choice of connection to the three primary terminals. Thus there are eighteen ratios to choose from, and the fact that they can be brought into circuit quickly enables the user to select the right value. This simple and facile method of matching the two impedances is an invaluable adjunct no matter whether the speaker is being used as the parent or as an extension speaker. The remaining terminals are for the connection of a volume - control. In our playing tests, both rac io and record inputs were used with little variation in tonal result. The efficiency of the speaker is about the average for a permanent magnet model of this size and type, and so, too, is the power -handling capacity. Providing the impedance matching is carried out carefully and correctly, as much as three or four watts may be fed into it before any sign of discomfort becomes apparent. At normal volume levels the characteristic seems to be fairly smooth and the range quite good. The treble certainly possesses no stridencies or coarseness, and it is reasonably articulate. At the other end of the scale the response is strong, though a little more firmness and clearer definition would be an advantage. Thus a large orchestra has a tendency to produce a " hollow " tone. It must be borne in mind, in this connection, that the cabinet in which the speaker is mounted - measures only 141 incites square by 61 incites deep. so that the effective baffle area is not very large. The whole of the casing is damped down with Cellotex or some similar absorbent material. so as to reduce wood vibration. But we fancy, though as vet we have not had the opportunity to test the point for ourselves, that the speaker would give a better account of itself mounted in a larger cabinet or on a baffle. The Senior Stentorian A New H.M.V. Loudspeaker The Gramophone Company Ltd. have produced a new permanent magnet loudspeaker housed in an attractive walnut cabinet. It is designed primarily as an extension speaker for all His Master's Voice instruments with the exec ption of the 800 and 580 radiograms. The speaker is fitted with a volume -control. which does not affect the output from the pa ent speaker. There is also a multi -ratio input transformer which provides ratios for the matching of the speech -coil to most ty pes of output stage. Thus it may also be used successfully as a parent speaker where the undistorted output does not exceed 3 watts ; 25 watts is a more safe limit. At :3 guineas this model 172, as it has been designated, seems an attractive proposition. More about it later.

52 346 The GRAMOPHONE January 1936 Trade Winds and Idle Zephyrs A NEW DECCA RADIOGRAM A no radio -gramophone will shortly be produced by Decca. It is an A.C. superhet based on an existing Decca three -valve (excluding rectifier) receiver. Briefly, the valve sequence m ill be a heptode frequency changer, a variable -mu I.F. amplifier and a double -diode power pentode. As in other Decca instruments, "Robot" control will be employed. Probably the most interesting feature is the price of the radiogra n-16 guineas. Voigt An unfortunate error occurred in the Voigt advertisem*nt last mouth. The caption to the illustration of the " Corner " Horn Loudspeaker read : " Corner I torn in Unfinished Wood." The prices quoted were 29 5s. D.C., and 32 Ss. to A.C. The correct caption and prices tell a very different story. They are : " Corner horn in luxury cabinet " ; 46 15s. D.C., 53 15s. A.C., or corner horn in unfinished wood with unit, 29 5s. To clarify the position still further, here ate the individual prices : Speaker Unit, 15 10s. ; Rectifier. 7 ; Horn in unfinished wood. 14.5s. ; Luxury Cabinet, 31 15s. A New Monthly Published by Bernard Jones Publications Ltd., 37-38, Chancery Lane, Vt'.C.2, and edited by that versatile fellow Ralph Stranger, a new monthly magazine made its bow last month. It is entitled Ralph Stranger's Science Reviews. Its object is perhaps best explained in Stranger's own words : "This is rather an unusual journal. It represents a bold experiment and a mission. The nature of the experiment will be readily understood by our readers. Our mission is to give the public a clear idea of up-to-date science in all its branches, of the work done and the methods employed by scientists in the study of natural phenomena." The book is well produced and this first issue covers a good many subjects. Some idea of the scope may be gathered from the following list of articles and authors : " Shall we ever fly at 10,000 m.p.h.?" " Splitting the Atom " (Dr. Bernard Childs, Ph.D., A.Inst.P.) ; " Cosmic Radiations " (L. G. H. Huxley, M.A.D.Phil.) ; " Is there Life in other Planets " ; " The Invisible World " (Ralph Stranger) ; " On the Shortwave Band " (" Pos'tron ") ; " The Microscope and its Wonders " (Prof. M. Grimes, M.Sc., Ph.D.); and, of course, Ralph Stranger contributes the first instalment of a series " The Elements of Radio." These are only a few items picked at random. It should also be noted that the Res iew has succeeded World Radio as the official organ of the Radio Research League. Now, you "armchair science" enthusiasts, what about it? The journal costs I. monthly. Marconiphone The scope of modern public adc ress amplifying equipment is extending rapidly. New and novel uses are found almost daily, and difficulties hitherto regarded as insuperable are now overcome with a minimum of effort and with complete satisfaction. To take an example, the Marconiphone equipment which is now installed in the principal Examination Room of the Civil Service Commission in Burlington Street is one which Las proved itself a real boon to examiners and candidates alike. This apparatus is used in conjunction with the dictation examination. Before the installation of this equipment, students at the back of the Examination Room very often had the utmost difficulty in hearing the dictator, and it was realised by the authorities that for students to have to strain their ears to hear what was being said was not conducive to a high standard of efhc'ency. The disposition of the loudspeakers in the Examination Room is of interest and of importance. No less than ten loudspeakers arc used in a room which conk normally be addressed by only two. These loudspeakers are suspended directly from the ceiling and over the heads of the students. As the sound comes from directly overhead, there is no interruption to the free passage of sound from the loudspeakers to the students' ears, nor is there any possibility of an interfering ocho from the surrounding walls. The whole system is designed to give first-class quality, and provis'on is made for adjusting the volume on any individual loudspeaker, besides a master control governing all speakers simultaneously. By means of a pitch control the pitch of the voice of the person dictating can be either raised or lowered, as required. N.B.-Look out for the 1936 Stagecraft Show-" A Marconi - Man's Guest Night." Unfortunately time and space does not permit of an account here. Next month, perhaps. Two New Books The first is the third edition of Wireless: Its Principles and Practice, by R. W. Hutchinson (published by the University Tutorial Press, Burlington House, Cambridge, at 3s. 6d.). That a book of t his nature reaches its third edition is ample evidence of the author's grasp of his subject and his ability to discourse upon it in a style t hat seldom becomes tedious or too text -bookish. For such a small volume the ground coy erect is considerable and up-to-date even to the extent of adventure into Television and Tele -Photography. Those of you, however, who are mainly interested in Television and who would knew more oft he principles involved and of the various systems than the space in this book allows for, would do well to get Television 1'p -to -Date. This is a new book by the same author and published by the University Tutorial Press. It is essentially a book for beginners and as such should succeed in giving the student a clear insight into and a firm grasp of the subject. With this end in v'e\c Mr. Hutchinson skilfully avoids the more technical aspects of Television and yet manages to give a fair account of both theory and practice. The volume is well produced and the text is clarified by numerous illustrations and diagrams. The price is 2s. 6d. NEEDLES THAT DO NOT INJURE THE RECORD :: BEST FOR RADIOGRAMS :: ONCE USED ALWAYS USED Round, Non Metallic Gramophone Needles. Electric Pick-up, Acoustic and New Emerald Full -Tone Needles, 2s. per packet. Packets of Radio and Emerald containing two Steel Caps for use with Needle Armature " Pick-ups," 2s. per packet. Music IDvEafi THE POPULAR B.C.N. NEEO%-E NEEDLE SHARPENER - 3s. 6d. each Trade Terms. Showcards and leaflets supplied through any Wholesale House or by Telephone THE B.C.N. COMPANY Telephone CROydon 6068 CROydon 6068 WADDON FACTORY ESTATE, STAFFORD ROAD, CROYDON

53 January 1936 The (IRA JIOPIIOJ'E 347 BEETHOVEN by AURAL GRAY ALTHOUGH there are still many people who express a passionate dislike of Beethoven's music, none can deny his greatness in the history of the art. The merits and demerits of his music have been fought out for more than a hundred years ; but of the man himself, as apart, from the musician (if it is possible to separate the two), far less has been written. His deafness, however, ís well known. A post-mortem examination showed that the nerves of the ear were virtually paralysed. and that the liver was deformed and shrunk to half its normal size. These and other evidences of chronic ill -health explain much of Beethoven's sudden fits of nervous depression, not to say melancholia. Moreover. his method of living was not conducive to good health. Irregular!nett s. hastily e&ten and carelessly chosen, combined with abnormal periods of work and sleep, must have worked havoc with a constitution of unusual strength. It is possible that Beethoven's passion for fresh air, and for bathing-two most unusual, not to say eccentric, attributes at the end of the eighteenth century-did much to counteract the many organic ma adies from which he suffered. Nor were the conditions of his childhood likely to build a foundation of good health in after -life. His father,.johann, cou d apparently make no more than a beggarly 25 a year from his services as a musician to the chapel in Bonn, and there were three other brothers and a sister to be kept. But at least his father, a tenor singer, realised his son's abilities and gave him the best instruction he could afford, and saw to it that young Ludwig kept to his studies. In his fourth year lie began to teach his son the violin and the clavier. and it is on record that the child acquired his learning not without tears. Five years later his fat ter confessed that he had taught his son all he could, and handed him over to an opera singer of the name of Pfeiffer. At eleven years of age. Beethoven was appointed deputy chapel organist, a post from which he derived no pay but a great deal of experience. Little more than a year later the young genius was appointed " eembalist " to the local opera, a position comparable in modern usages to that of rehearsal pianist and chorus coac i. Despite the responsibilities of this position, there was no emolument attached thereto, but at least it gan e leisure for composition, and three piano sonatas and a song were issued in this year by the boy-for he was no more. In the following year, the circ*mstances of the family went from bad to worse. The youngest brother died, the father's voice began to fall, the opera was disbanded, and the post of deputy -organist at the chapel was abolished. Nevertheless, with occasional compositions and chapel -organ playing, the family managed to exist, in direst poverty. This state of affairs lasted for three years, when Beethoven embarked on his momentous journey to Vienna, during which he met Mozart and received a few lessons from him. It is on record that Beethoven thought little of Mozart's playing, although the older man expressed his belief that the boy would " make a noise in the world some day or other." At the end of this year Beethoven made his first real friends in the parents of some children to whom he gave music lessons. This family, the von Breunings, did much towards educating his mind in literature and general culture, and a great deal of his time was spent in their house. Through the influential people Beethoven met in the von Breunings' home he began to receive a little recognition, and, THE MAN at the age of seventeen, received a responsible post in the newly formed nationa theatre, playing viola in the opera and chapel, as well as organ in the chapel. Thus he remained until he was twenty-two, ever widening his circle of friends through the von Breunings, increasing his experience at the opera and the chapel, and diligently studying all the time. At the end of this period he so impressed his patron, the Elector, that lie was sent to Vienna to study at the latter's expense with Haydn. The first payment to Haydn for an hour's lesson was 9 d.! But Ludwig was dissatisfied with his progress and took lessons, it seems, from several sources. His unorthodoxy, however, seems to have shocked most of his teachers, and there is a record of one of them complainly bitterly of this pupil " who regarded everything in music, even consecutive fifths, as an open question." Whilst in Vienna, which, incidentally, he never again left for any appreciable period, Beethoven again came in contact with aristocratic patrons of music. His greatest friends were Prince and Princess Lichnowsky, who did all they could to assist him, even to the extent of an annual pension of 60. He was a constant visitor in the houses of the nobility where no doubt he performed as well as taught, and it is to the credit of his great genius that he maintained his hold on the affections of his patrons although he treated them with ever-increasing contempt. On one occasion, whilst playing before a gathering of Viennese society, Beethoven took exception to some muttered " I will conversation at the other end of the room, and said : not play for such hogs." Nor would all the entreaties of those present move him from his decision. He was, it seems, acutely independent, and any suggestion of patronage infuriated him. Prince Lichnowsky, knowing how sensitive Beethoven was to imagined slights, ordered that his servants attended to the composer's wants first and his own afterwards. Beethoven, hearing of this, flew into a passion, engaged a servant himself, and declined all service from Lichnowsky's menials. He seems to have been singularly unable to appreciate a joke against himself, although not above making others look foolish, as witness the occasion when he modulated in the middle of a piece deliberately to put off a singer to whom he had taken a dislike. But on another occasion Beethoven played a new composition to a friend, who, delighted with it and memorising parts of it, played it in private to Lichnowsky, himself an amateur pianist of no mean order. Shortly afterwards, the Prince, by way of a joke, told.beethoven that he had composed a new work, and thereupon played Beethoven's own new composition to him. Beethoven was furious, and swore never to play again to friends. Nor would he, except on rare occasions, when he was actually carried by force to the piano, which he would strike with the back of his hand. But once he had been persuaded to start, he would go on for hours, extemporising on a theme with a fecundity of ideas and a digital technique which were astounding. Though on these and other occasions he would behave like a boor, sneering at the applause and tears he evoked, he seemed unable to alienate the affections of his admirers, who suffered all his opprobrium and insults in grat'tude for his musical genius. As a pure technician of the piano, apart from his abilities as a composer, he was a phenomenon. Enormously difficult pieces by Bach he played at sight, and he transposed his

54 348 The GR.9JIOPIIOr'E January 1936 Concerto in C into C sharp when he foundithat the piano, with which he was to play with the orchestra, was a semitone flat. As a courtier he was an immense success with the ladies, and his loves seem to have been many anti various, ranging from royalty to tradesmen's dat ghters. Many of his works were dedicated to his inamoratas, and he made no secret of his relations with his aristocratic admirers and pupils, although it appears that most of his associations were strictly moral. His religion was on a par with his manners-non-existent -and his clothes were strange in the extreme. Czerny describes him as appearing in a suit of some loose hairy cloth which made him look like Robinson Crusoe, with half an inch growth of beard, his black hair in a thick tangle, and his ears stuffed up with plugs of cotton -wool which had been soaked in some yellow substance. Other observers, however, speak of him as being undeniably ugly, but wit I a smile both genial and winning. He had a broad jaw, a high, intellectual forehead, a determined mouth, protruding lips, and bright black eyes of almost magnetic attraction which dilated in an extraordinary manner in moments of elation. He was of less than medium height-five feet five inchesbut broad of shoulder and muscularly built. His hands were covered with black hair, and of a s irprisingly small stretchhe could barely span a tenth-with the finger-tips spatulate through excessive playing as a child. Through his rough manners and eccentric behaviour (on occasions he would stand in front of his window clad in nothing but a nightshirt, allow water to pour all over the floor in floods, accuse his servants of being unable to make good soup because they told lies, and even throw a whole batch of eggs at his cook, one by one, because the} were not fresh!) he changed his abode often, sometimes of his own volition, sometimes because of his landlord's. He actually abandoned one lodging because the landlord insisted on removing his hat every time he encountered his distinguished tenant! His greatest trial must have been his deafness, which first began to show itself when he was about twenty-eight. He was in mortal dread of this infirmity being discovered, and would go to endless lengths of pretence that he could hear. When he was fifty-two his deafness was so bad that he was unable to hear his orchestra as he conducted it, a fact which nearly wrecked the production of his Fidelio at the Josephstadt Theatre, and led to him having to leave the orchestra. At the performance of his Choral Symphony he was completely deaf and had to be turned round so that he could see the applause which his music inspired. From this period onwards he carried out all communications in writing, and carried with him a block of paper and a thick pencil. As the result of a violent cold in the stomach. inflammation of the lungs and dropsy took a firm hold of him, and after lingering for a long time, Beethoven flied on December 26th. 1827, at the age of fifty-six. The funeral took place three days later, and was attended by an immense concourse of people. Thirty-two torchbearers and eight pall -bearers were drawn from the famous musicians of the time, including Kreutzer. Czemy, and Schubert. A choir of sixteen and a quartet of trombones sang and played two Equali. Soldiers were needed to control the crowds and it took the funeral procession nearly two hours to proceed the short distance from the house to the church. The sale of his manuscripts and notebooks, together with his two pianos. produced curiously little. The total estate, including some bank shares and an advance sum from a concert, was a little over 1,000. Thirty-seven years later his remains we e exhumed from the neglected grave, and re -buried under a monument, which hears a stone obelisk on which is engraved the one word " Beethoven." To Gramophone Enthusiasts at Home and Abroad FOR more than thirty years we have been mailing Gramóphone Records to all parts of the world, an achievement of which we are justly proud. 1 herever you are situated, it is certain that Gramophone Records which interest you will he issued in England. You will wish to add these to your collection, to forge one more link with the homeland. Or, maybe, while on leave in England, you will see a show, the tunes from which you would like to have as a memento. Here is where we are at your service. Just let us have a list of your requirements; we will do the rest. Not only do we stock records of every wellknown make, we pack them and insure them to any part of the world. Don't forget, too, that we can supl);y you with any accessory, from a needle to the most exclusive soundbox, from a sing e spring to the latest electric motor. Full Catalogues and particulars sent free and post free on receipt of a Ilostcard. THE GRAMOPHONE EXCHANGE LTD. 121 SHAFTESBURY AVENUE, LONDON, W.C.2 (4 doors east of Cambridge Circus) Telephone: TEMple Bar 3007

55 January 1936 The 011AJ1OPIION 349 VIBRATO v. TREMOLO The desire of.i/r. N. G. Hurst for an ex cathedra utterance on the Vibrato v. Tremolo controversy is shared by many other earnest seekers after the truth. II is letter, which heads this.symposium, determined us to settle the question once for all by going lo the fountain -head of knowledge. So we approached J/esdames Emma Eames, Zélie de Lussan, Blanche Marchesi and Emma Nevada, Mr. Ernesto Baraldi and Mr. Ben Davies. The generous response of these distinguished singers and teachers, whose opinions we print below, should surely set our minds at rest. Though each reply is delightfully stamped with the artist's individuality, the nett result is unanimity, and we are all immensely grateful to them for so effectually Hearin' the air for us. Miss V. A. Davies' letter emphasises yet again the confusion that seems to exist, even among knowledgable people. about this vibrato question, and tvh'ch 's leading me to conclude that our ea s are not as reliable as we may think them to he, so that some hearen:s may be far more sensitive to the vibrations in sound than are others. This may be a well -recognised fact. lint I doubt whether ordinary musical listeners fully realise it. We ought to be a good deal clearer than we are as to what we mean when we speak of a vibrato, especially if we think of it as a defect per se. No one who. like myself. has been privileged to obsen a from a distance of a couple of paces the movements of t he throat, jaw, and tongue of singers of no ernational repute in full song, could possibly be deluded into thinking that the vibrato was an accidental and unfortunate weakness ; the co-ordinated and complicated oscillations of those parts of tie vocal machinery, as well. probably, es of many others which were invisible to rase. would leave one in no doubt that the true vibrato could be a('gtrireti only by intensive study and application. The singer's use of it may become excessive. and therefore inartistic : it may even become a vice-to certain listeners-but even supposing that illrue. Supervia had fallen a victim to it, she still should not be accused of a tremolo. which is a very different thing. But instead of this constant nibbling at the subject. which has been going on so long in and out of " C.('," 1 wish we could get some sort of ex cathedra utterance by an undisputed authority, which would tell us exactly what vibrato is, what it does. and why : also. if such a thing be possible. why certain critics are never tired of complaining of what is, after all, nothing but an essential part of tine singing. P. G. I I u ast. The question of voice emission and production would permit one to write volumes. However. the question is not of that, but of Conchit a Supervia whom I both admire and enjoy. Site is unique and cannot be judged by conventional standards. I, however, have never heard any semblance of a tremolo in her singing. To the British-or rather Englishear the ideally beautiful sound is that which approaches as nearly as possible the flute or wood -wind. The ideal sound for other countries is based on the stringed instruments and its perfect legato with a strong timbre. The voice of Madame Supervia is '(11'y vibrant and is of this sort, which may in consequence give rise to the impression of a tremolo to those who enjoy the voice with less timbre. I hope I have understood and answered your questions. It gives me pleasure to write your name as I have enjoyed and own all Compton Mackenzie's books. f:udia RIASIES. The term vibrato is mole often than not used erroneously, and the menage person. when speaking of a singer with a vibrato. means nine times out of ten it voice with a tremolo; but since that et it tendency cannot be tolerated. the terns vibrato has taken its place. I ibrato in Italian and French means une voix vibrante. No 'mindful voice or instrument exists without it. The most noble of all instruments is the organ, which has, as everyone knows, an especially appealing stop called vox humano. All my contemporaries. and their name is legion, the (le Reszkes, Caruso, I'langon. Alvarez. Calvé. Melba, \' ordica. Eames, Tentina, and many more too numerous to meat ion, and all those who enchanted the musical world long long before our time. and the present artists, Tauber. Melchior. McCormack. Ponselle. I,eíder, anti so many more than I can, in this short article, pay homage to. had and have des voix vibrantes, and could never have attained their great reputations without vibrante voices. ZÉLIE DE LussAr. These questions. laid before me in your etter, really ask for a small pamphlet as an answer. But neither readers nor I have time at our disposal, so I will try to be clear and short. If there is anything that makes listening to singers a torture it is singing out of tune, and the tremolo singing out of tune is curable if the reasons lie in false production, ill -health, or straining, and not in a faulty hearing. The first can be cured, the latter with great painstaking bettered. but a person with a bad ear will. even after hard work. never give hearers a pure joy. But the tremolo is quite another matter. This horrible fault comes from various causes. They all derive fl'orn using wrong methods, which means (raving worked at singing ignoring the rules wit bout which a voice cannot be trained in beauty. health and endurance. The one must be excepted : physical defects which produce tremolo. People generally believe that trentolo is taught in Italy. and that it is 'he result of work aiming to produce it. 1 do not think that there can be one such fool in t he whole world as to teach it, but I firmly believe that there are many wrong methods which. unless taught. have as an inevitable consequence this ugly fault. Then, also. there is an explanation for its continuous appearance. especially on Italian stages : the Italians simply hate cold voices that possess no sympathetic vibrations. They call them " railway whistles " and they prefer a tremolo to a stiff, lifeless sound. The vibrations of the human oice form its sympathy. But the vibrations must be natural. deriving from the quality of the vocal cords. \ ibrations can never he mistaken for tremolo. The first is a quality, the second is a fault-more than fault. When you hear the tremolo in a voice. you will know that it will stemlily increase uith time anti that at the end the career of the artist will be stopped. But, as I mentioned, this is curable in the first and second degree. The vibrato of some known artist mentioned in your letter is a sister question not less serious t,han the one of the tremolo. It is in this case the consequet ce of forced registers of the voice. and it also can be stopped if taken in time. It is the over-rihralion of the vocal cords themselves. not tie shaking of the whole larynx as occurs in the tremo/o. 1 explain this in detail in my hook. These over -vibrations I have detected and observed in revs sal cases w here the pupils had never sung and had never been wrongly taught, and the reason for these exaggerated vibrations trust be found in some weakness in the body. that is. the heart. Doctors consulted came to the same conclusion as I and when the cure had been accomplished the vibrato had ciisappearexi for ever.

56 350 The GRAMOP11ONF. January 1936 So there are three things : natural vibrations, vibrato and tremolo. The first is all right, the second should be cured, the third must be stopped. I hope I have not been too long, but even as it is I should and could add a small volume to all this. BLANCHE MARCHESI. 1 don't know what is meant by vibrato as used in this sense. Every well -trained voice has vibrato in some degree, just as every violin or 'cello depends on the vibration made by the player's fingers for its tone. All good things can he spoiled by exaggeration, and vibrato is no exception. There is no comparison between vibrato, as I understand it, and tremolo, which is a serious fault caused by wrong breathing and production or ill -health. Vibrato is life and tremolo is disease. EMMA NEVADA. I have read with much interest Mr. P. G. Nurst's letter on the vexed subject of vibrato. The confusion about this question seems to arise from the fact that the word "vibrato " is used by some in the sense of " vibrant sonorous," and by others, the majority, to express a shaky tone. The singing voice must vibrate to a certain extent, and must do so in obedience to our will if we want to express emotion in singing. Tone and sound vibrations are formed at the larynx, and are amplified by the vocal resonators. \Vo obtain a good tone if we are a ale to control t he laryngeal mechanism, and the wa Is or movable parts of the resonators. On the contrary, if we cannot control the vocal organ, we instinctively increase the air pressure and tension of the laryngeal muscles and we produce a forced tone, that is, a tone incorrectly amplified. Forced tone and forced tension produce a disagreeable vibrato. It is in our power to control the vocal organ, and to produce a pleasant y vibrating, sonorous voice. Mr. Burst has observed and heard such voices, and these singers were instinctively controlling the jaw, tongue, and muscles of the throat during phonation. Without this control they could not produce a good tone and what Mr. Burst calls a " true vibrato." As he says, "vibrato may become excessive " -in that case, the voice shakes because the muscles of the vocal organ are not kept at their right tension. Thus, a tremolo is produced. I would describe vibrato as an instinctive effect, a rapid but ery sligzt variation in pitch, the frequency of the note produced r'sing and falling about the true note. t certain amount of vibrato, which is instinctively produced by a singer, is effective and necessary, but an exaggerated vibrato or uncontrolled use of the dev'ce might easily (les e op a tremolo. Tremolo, as usually understood, is a rapid alternation of the volume of tone, caused by a similar a ternation in the air pressure below the larynx. Excessive vibrato and tremolo are produced, as a rule, by lack of tension of the muscles controlling the laryngeal mechanism, and by faulty control of the vocal organ. ERNESTO BAR \LDI. People are greatly in error when they call a tremolo vibrato. Tremolo is nothing more than the escape of breath over the vocal chords-the breath comes before the note. The great singers of the past were taught to pay particular attention to the note being in front of the breath, the voice resting on the breath-by this means all tremolo is avoided. A true vibrato is on a steady note and is the result of intense expression -just as a violinist vibrates on his violin. A tremolo is on two notes. I never heard a tremolo with the really great ones such as Reeves, Patti, Melba, Battistini, the de Reszkes, Plancon and Caruso, but I often heard a vibrato, which is quite a different thing. BEN DAVIES. TURN TABLE TALK Fred Stokes It was typical of Keith Prowse thoroughness and good taste that the farewell dinner given to Mr. Stokes on his retirement after forty-two years' service on December 10th was the most elegantly and sensibly designed entertainment imaginable ; and the seventy guests, including the heads of the firm and its branches, and representatives of the manufacturers and distributors of musical merchandise and the Press, were regaled with food and wine, cigars and entertainers in so agreeable an atmosphere that one and all felt the occas'on as memorable as it must have been to the central figure. \Ir. Stokes was honoured in the speeches of Messrs. Herbert Smith (chairman). Richard Haigh (H.M.V.), Moorby Smith. Herbert Sinclair (I'ianomaker), J. Davis, Fred Smith and Campbell smith ; and responded to the toast in a low voice with the quiet emotion that confirmed the justice of all the warm-hearted and respectful praises showered upon him by his friends and colleagues. To have received such compliments fal s to the lot of few men when they retire ; to have earned them, to the lot of still fewer. But Mr. Stokes has maintained a fine tradition throt ghout his association with Keith Prowse and hands it on to his successors greatly enhanced by his personality. Records for Distribution Occasionally readers send us parcels of discarded records, electric and pre -electric, for distribution among fellow -readers unable to afford as many records as they would like to buy. Applications are now invited and should state their claims very briefly. These should be sent to the London Office and the coupon on page xviii attached. Free! The " Educational Catalogue," issued by the Central Educational 011ices, 98, Clerkenwell Road, E.C.1, has now been revised and enlarged and changes its name to " Handbook of Educational Records." Invaluable to teachers who use the gramophone in school, and sent free on application. Recordings wanted Mozart : Rondo in G major for violin and piano. Sarasate : Introduction and Tarantelle, and Zapeteado, played by Szigeti or Heifetz. Beethoven : A new recording of the Seventh Symphony. Vaughan Williams : Constant complaints from readers of the neglect of this British composer convince us that something must soon he clone about it. A Vaughan Williams Society has been suggested. and what about Arnold Bax? Folk Dance anc Song The National Folk Dance Festi\ al at the Albert Hall on January 4th (8.15) will be enlivened by the Basque Mascarade Dancers from the French Pyrenees. Tickets Is. 6d. to 7s. lid. The Alan Turner Co. This enterprising amateur company w ill play J. Strauss' Fantastic Oriental opera, 1000 Nights, based on " The Arabian N'ghts," at the Rudolf Steiner Hall on Wednesday,.Jan. 29th, at 7.45 p.m. Admission 5s. 9d. to 21s. Reader's Request Can any reader supply the translation of the \1v ine Song, " Fin ch'han dal vino," from Mozart's Don Giovanni.

57 . January 1936 The ORAMOPt1Or E XV FIBRE NEEDLES 4 i, -` or the like, while essential for preserving the record, tend to reduce extreme top so much that l they do not normally do justice to our loudspeaker. We are now able to restore the top to approximately its correct level, by means of a recently developed circuit, used in conjunction with specially tuned Rothermel piezo pick-ups. If users of VOIGT speakers will communicate with us, we shall be pleased to advise them how to obtain from such needles a response worthy of our speakers. Above we illustrate an inexpensive type of Corner Horn based on Mr. Butler's design but without expensive hardwoods, french polish, etc. With deal structure and ply panels its price in " unfinished wood " with D.C. unit is 32 5s. Od. ex Works (A.C. 3 to 7 extra)....all WRONG! We apologise for a mis- understanding through which our loudspeaker in Luxury Cabinet, built to the design of J. H. Butler, Esq., and illustrated here, was wrongly described last month as " A Corner Horn in unfinished wood." VOIGT PATENTS LTIl It should have been " Luxury Corner Horn in Walnut." Price with D.C. Unit 46 I5s. Od. ex Works or 53 I5s. Od. A.C. Ditto framed type in unfinished wood E29 Ss. Od. D.C. Cr VOIGT PATENTS LIMITED ; // THE COURTS SILVERDALE SYDENHAM LONDON S.E.26 Telephone SYDenham 4114 Registered Office. 22 Castle Street, E.C.1 WRITE FOR FULL PARTICULARS OF VOIGT HORN -LOADED SPEAKERS 1^ -..- :` --. `r7 A D ts a. º- t_. :. 50/- complete -' just the thing for New Year's Parties! ' ). The addition of a MELTROPE PICK-UP to your Gramophone will reproduce your records as they should be-at their best! AMPLIFIERS L BILLET RP WALTHAMSTOW E 17 TELEPHONE: LARKSWOOD 2244 The Pick -Up of the Future THE ROTHERMEL-BRUSH PIEZO-ELECTRIC PICK-UP 14, ::.y:_--r n- ". e Acclaimed by the leading authorities as the greatest advance in design and performance that has ever been made the Rothermel-Brush Piezo-Electric Pick-up gives a response of from 42 to 8,500 cycles with an output of 2 volts R.M.S. No other pick-up available can equal this performance. There is only 11 ozs. weight on the record, thus ensuring an entire absence of wear and tear. This new and revolutionary non-magnetic and non - resonant pick-up represents the finest value available, and because of its outstanding performance has been adopted as standard equipment by R.G.D. and other prominent manufacturers of high-fidelity radio -gramophones. MODEL S.8. 42f - Write for complete lists featuring " Rothermel - Brush " Piezo - Electric Pick-ups, Speakers and Microphones, etc., post free. 0'1) d Rothermel House, CANTERBURY ROAD, HIGH ROAD. KILBURN, LONDON. N.W.6. 'Phone : Halda Vale 6066.

58 XVI The GRAJIOPIIO.VE January 1936 SOCIETY ISSUES al<1 OTHER COMPLETE WORKS ON DEFERRED TERMS. PARTICULARS ON APPLICATION THE GRAMOPHONE EXCHANGE, Telephone: Temple Bar 3007 ASTRA HOUSE, 121, SHAFTESBURY AVENUE, LONDON, W.C.2. LTD. Four doors East of Cambridge Circus AMERICA'S FINEST RECORD SHOP On our shelves are to be found the most amazing collection of records which we gather from practically every corner of the earth WEDNESDAY JAN. I936!i IIAPPY NEW YEAR TO every reader of THE GRAMOPHONE, with special reference to those who during the past year have joined the " Expert Family " and have become enthusiastic users of " Expert " Gramophones and Radio. Speaking with pride as perhaps the oldest advertiser in THE GRAMOPHONE, I thank any readers who by their continued support have enabled me to continue my fight for the hand -made " Expert " Acoustic Gramophone. Help me to make 1936 a year of continued success for the " Expert." My new lists will prove to you that a handmade " Expert " outfit, Acoustic, Radio, or Radiogramophone, apart from giving a " result " that no mass-produced article could ever hope to achieve, need not cost you more. Write for your copy now. Here's to You THE GRAMOPHONE SHOP INC. 18 EAST FORTY- EIGHTH STREET NEW YORK :: NEW YORK, U.S.A. IMPORTING AND EXPORTING A SPECIALITY 10a SOHO SQUARE, LONDON, W. I Gerrard 3632

59 January 1936 The GRAMOPHONE 351 COLLECTORS' CORNER by P. G. HURST [Collectors wishing for replies to queries are asked to write (not call or telephone), enclosing stamped, addressed envelope.] IT is heartening to all of us that I am able to report some further finds of the very first importance. both at home and abroad; as these go to show that the sources are not yet dry, and that sale rooms and junk shops may still prod' ce unsuspected treasures. Moreover, it is small satisfaction to the newer collectors to feel that they can hope to see or hear the real prizes only in the collections of a few individuals. It is, indeed, desirable that the rarer records should he more widely available if the interest is to be maintained ; and it is interest, and not mere scarcity, which creates value. But I do not wish to be misunderstood by value I mean : sentimental and artistic alue ; directly anything becomes valuable in terms of money it becomes a worry and an anxiety. A collector recently informed me that the " market " in early records seemed to have " skimped statement that left me very much where I was, because I was quite unaware that there was a market. There are, of course. many specimens from which their owners would never consent to be parted for any sum of money within the present bounds of reason. Init, on the other hand, the general run of records which are gladly accepted by the less austere collectors do not seem particularly attractive at ten shillings apiece. But as I have hinted before, not el en the mulish attitude of " C.C." will in the long run avail in maintaining the sublime aloofness of English collectors towards the real or potential money value of their treasures. Despite the pessimism of the older collectors, I believe that the surface of the collecting field has hardly been scratched, and that a widening knowledge will bring to light such treasures as m ill excite the curiosity and even the cupidity of hundreds who hitherto are unaware of the very existence of record -collecting. Much of the foregoing was inspired by a further letter from L. 11.-R. (Melbourne), whose splendid start as collector was commented upon in September, and whose latest achievements are so remarkable that I will quote them verbatim, as both the finds themselves and L. II.-R.'s comments upon them will be found equally interesting. He writes as follows : "Since I wrote to you the last time, some very nice things have come to light, the standard of which is good enough in some cases to be equal to anything found in England or on the Continent. I will come to these finds later. " About a wee; after I had written my first letter to you, I visited my friend R. E. H. (Geelong). and returned with the following : Simon the Cellarer, by Santley ; Tie Holy City, by Lloyd; Aria 1'ioletta. Traviata. by Michailowa ; and , Shadow Song, Dinorah, by Huguet. All originals. " The Santley is splendid, and I think the best of the batch. with the Michailowa and Huguet coining soon after. The Lloyd is too battered to be of much value, and blasts on most of the high notes. " My next acquisit ion was Melba's 1904 Caro.Vome, in /rich I was very disappointed, and later got rid of it for Plancon's Pif-I'af-Pouf (1902). which is magnificent. Later came Patti's cut-out 1905 Kathleen Mavourneen, which is too longdrawn-out for my liking; and Melba's 1905 Home, Sweet Home. My next find of any importance was an original of the Caruso and Scotti duet from La Forza del Destino. which is in good orcer, hut seems to be rather 'muzzy.'* * \ little worn, I expect. " Then came (for me) the find of the month. Visiting an auction room, I found, and had given me, the fol owing : No. piú nohile (Adriana Lecouvreur) by Caruso (oh, Mr. Drumumond!) ; II Sogao (Manor) by Caruso ; Sweet Bird by Melba ; and Dolce Amor by Sembrich. " The No. piú nohile is simply wonderful, and has to be heard to be believed, and the higi notes are taken with an ease that is certainly lacking in his later records (and also in some of his earlier ones). The Manor air I am disappointed in, not liking the song itself very much. The Sweet Bird is certainly very brilliant. and must rank among Melba's best coloratura songs, and is far ahead of her rendering made about three years later. A week later carne Melba's 1905 Good-bye, and two Odeons, Hempel's Last Rose of Summer and II Bacio, and Questa o quella and Aria Faust by Affre. " After these, about twelve days later. came Magali by Calvé (1902), unfortunately cracked, but still playable with the filtre. This. with Santley's Vicar of Bray on a Black Label, which seems to be an original but owing to the colour of the label has rather baffled me, was quite a nice find. which also included two Win. Paull records-the Heart bowed down and It is enough. " Them I had a find which was one of the best out here for quite a long time. Returning home from a choir practice one evening, anti feeling sick. I was hailed by a friend, who in course of conversation mentioned that he had some records, and that if I felt like it I could come up and see them. I decided to go t here and then. " My friend doubted whether there was anything there to suit me, as they were so old, but on arriving this is what 1found_ :3: Voici des Roses Mikado's Song Fantasie ron Leonhardt Serenade Pierne Air du Toreador Serenade (Drdla) Di quella pira Der Sangerkrieg Habafiera V of lo sapete Prologo Star of Eve (two copies) A Friend A Jovial.Monk Nini, Ni'utte, Ninon I1"altz, Rwaeo A Farewell Renaud. Richard Temple. F. l)rdlla. P. I)rdla. Planeon. Kubelik. Tamagno. Van Roov. Calvé Calvé Sammarco. Renaud. Carmen Sylva. 11-m. Paull. Maurice Farkoa. Farrar. Lloyd." The next thing I expected to read was, " Then I woke up " : but apparently not, as L. H. -R. continues his thrilling narration : " All the above are originals, except one of the copies of the Star of Eve. wl ich has a Black Label, anti is perhaps one of those issued before the advent of the Red Label ; or was it an odds one that slipped out? " I can quite understand your saying that the Renaud Star of Ere is the only one you want to hear, and I now, like you, think it infinitely better than the Journet version. It is impossible to pick out the best of this little lot. as all are so good. but I like, I think, time Prologue by Sammarco best, and although cut, it is the best version I know of, though I have not heard Ancona's rendering. The Renaud Voici

60 352 The GRAMOPHONE January 1936 des Roses is good : and the Drdlas are unexpected finds. From the historical point of view, I suppose the Carmen Sylva is far and away ahead of any of the others, and if anyone deserved to be a celebrity, it was she. This record seems to be unique, as I c on't seem to remember seeing any record of hers reported before. It is really a treat to hear English so well spoken. Is it because they are so rare or because they are not considered worth reporting by collectors that we never hear of them? The Calvés, Plangon and Tamagno are good, but the Van Rooy is disappointing-again owing to the fact that I am not too fond of a number of the Wagnerian songs. " Lately it was my good fortune, or bad fortune, to hear three of the G. & T. Suzanne Adams records (Jewel Song. Home. Sweet Home, and 1'rintetnps Nouveau), and I was terribly disappointed with all three records. and more especially with the Jewel Song, as it has always been given great praise in " C.C." The voice does not seem to be outstanding, and it seems to me a surprise that she ever reached the Red Label discs. The same thing applies to Edouard de Reszke ; and the way he cuts off the phrases in the Infelice is. to say the least of it, very queer. He gives me the impression that he is worrying about the next phrase. and he seems to be thinking ' will I be able to get another breath in time for the next phrase? '... I will hazard the opinion that no collector who has just finished reading the above is fee ing quite the same as he felt before he read it! Here is a collector who, whether young, old, or middle-aged, after a few months of collecting has acquired a collection of a quality which many, indeed most, collectors will never acquire ; but all will wish to join in congratulating him. Moreover, L. H. R.'s " running commentary " raids greatly to the interest of the recital, especially where it differs from some of our pet fanc'es. I think, for instance, that everybody who knows Suzanne Adams' records will agree that there must have been something wrong when L. H. -R. heard those three. Admittedly the Home, Sweet Hon e is the least satisfactory of the series. but may I suggest that it is often overlooked that the playing speeds of the original records vary very much, and that unless the Adams records are played at about 74 revolutions, an entirely wrong impression of the delicious voice will he produced. For phrasing and colour, besides its voluptuous sweetness of tone, I have never in all my life, on or off the stage. heard a Jewel Song to compare with this. and I have heard them all-oh, many times. Otherwise, were these copies much worn? or is the instrument capable of reproducing with fibre? There must ha\ e been something wrong somewhere. The case of' Edouard de Reszke is different ; and frankly, I do not feel myself technically equipped to deal with it. I know quite well what L. H. -R. means about the clipped phrases. but I do not agree t rat they indicate any lack of vocal power ; rather the reverse, in fact. Is it, not noticeable (I stand to be corrected) that as singers mature in their art, they tend more and more to throw off the exuberances of former days, and settle down into a style austerer and more classical? I hate to use the term "vulgarity" in connection with Verdi's music, but it is a fact nevertheless that it has' pursued him from his earliest composing days : and I think it is also a fact that in its very style it permits vulgarity in its interpreters, if they have no mind above it. Those of us who have been in a position to judge the music of the master by such recognised Verdian artists as Jlaurel, Tamagno, Boninsegna, Destinn, Battistini, Caruso, Edouard himself, and, in our own clay, Dusolina Gianirmi, will understand this well enough. Now consider de Reszke's Infelice : whatever its shortcomings, and 1 do not claim there are none, it certainly is not vulgar ; nor is it clecorat ive, nor exuberant, nor showy on the contrary, it is decidedly restrained : but it is also a well-balanced. symmetrical, and just sufficiently rhythmic performance, which is the ripened work of a mature artist who, having found the very shape and soul of the music, is content to leave well alone. I need not add what is common knowledge about the state of Edouard's vocal organ at the time he made his records in 1902 or 1903, but the suggestion that he hail not the breath to sing a short aria into the gramo- phone may surely be summarily dismissed. Actually, the voice is freer and more resonant in the Don Juan Serenade ; but the clipping of the phrases is still more marked. Mr. Klein has remarked upon the " matchless phrasing " of the Infelice, and I think he would have agreed that as we grow older, we come to look for qualities other than those which appealed to us in our youth : indeed, if it were not so, what would be left for us by middle -age? In reply to L. H. -12.'s query as to the Black Label Renaud, it is true t hat certain of this artist's Paris records date from 1901, and. therefore, precede the Red Label issue : but this was not one of them, and belongs to the London Red series of Quite a number of the original Reds were later relegated to the general (Black Label) catalogue either in England or abroad, this evidently being among them. The same applies to the Santley Vicar of Bray ; and the exact year of issue can be determined by the usual signs. Sammareo's 10 -inch Prologue is still unknown to me, though I have his 12 -inch of I had the advantage of hearing both Samurarco and Ancona in their terrific renderings of Tonio : and if Samrnarco's Prologue did not " thunder forth sonorous " quite in the manner of Ancona's, it had an easy lightness and resiliency which those who heard it for the first time hailed as a " new rendering." As I have remarked lately, to hear Sammarco properly, one should possess one of his early Fonotipias ; but I should like to hear this Prologue. I1 hatever were the errors and omissions in " Recorded Memor'es," the compiler did not omit the records of Carmen Sylva, although feeling much the same doubts about them as moved him to omit the Figners and Vialtzeva-namely, that they were dead and buried ; and a deplorable decision it was! It is true that the records of the late Queen of Roumania have not found much notice in " C.C.," but so far as I know only two copies are known in English collections, one of which w as snatched from under my hands, to my cruel disappoint- ment. Being spoken recitations, their appeal would he somewhat limited, but I imagine that any collector would be happy if he found one. " The Van Rooy was disappointing " : well, well ; tastes must differ-it is a way they have. But although Gazing around is a sturdy in formality, it gives fino opportunity for lyrical declamation, and I, for one, would never willingly miss hearing it finely rendered ; and it was child's play to an artist of Van Rooy's calibre to give a little manhood to the deplorable Wolfram, and so to impart some of Iris own splendid virility to his interpretation. I was fortunate enough to have had my first hearing of Il Sogno in Manon from Caruso's record of 1902, and so to have avoided the prejudice from hearing it from anybody else. as I dou of whether anybody, except de Lucia, could have given it such an air of romance. I would like to hear Fernande Annseau sing it, as he, at any rate, could be relied upon to treat this fragile fragment with becoming grace. Annseau is a truly great tenor, and possibly the last one survivinga reflection which was powerfully brought Hone to me by a recent broadcast of records in which he followed immediately upon one of the robot-like tenors who so depressingly function on most of our imported records. Fortunately. his acoustical records are still to be found : (it may be as you say, Mr. Reimens. but you never can tell!). A printer's error in the second column of " C.C." last month altered Gerster into " Ginster."

61 January 1936 The GRAMOPHONE 353 CORRESPONDENCE AND GRAMOPHONE SOCIETY REPORTS De Gustibus Non Est Disputandum. [All letters and manuscripts should be written on one side only of the paper and should be addressed to the Editor, THE GRAMOPHONE, 10a Soho Square, London, The writer's full name and address must be given. A stamped envelope must be enclosed if an answer or the return of the manuscript is desired. The Editor wishes to emphasize the obvious fact that the publication of letters does not imply his agreement with the views expressed by correspondents.] Miliza Korjus To the Editor of THE GRAMOPHONE. For the benefit of Miliza Korjus " fans " I have compiled the following list of her Continental records, which includes rather more than those listed in THE GRAMOPHONE for March They cost 4s. each. H..l1.V. IScl,attentanz Dinorah F11905 H.M.V. EH860 H.M.V. EH898 H.M.V. EH864 H.M.V. E11887 H.M.\. E11908 H.M.V. EI-I876 H.M.V. E11863 }Air de Olympia. Friihlingsstimmen. Variationen (Proch). Martern \ller Arten. Der Rolle Rache. Tales of Hoffmann. Frag ich mein. Barber of Seville. Tearer name. Rigolelto. Aufforderung zumtanz. Schlafe mein prinzchen. Parla (\\ alzer). Kuss (\\ alzer). Bravour Variationen (Mozart-Adam). Die Nachtigall. Variationen uber Drei Roslein. } Altogether fifteen sides. These records are available from The Gramophone Company by special order only. In some cases duty may be charged if the desired record is out of stock and has to be obtained from abroad, though the charge is small. In most cases. however, the records are to be had in England. Any authorised dealer can obtain them. The following three records have given me great pleasure, and I can recommend them wholeheartedly : 1. Die Nachtigall-Bravour Variationen (Mozart-Adam). 2. Mar tern A1ler Artet -Der Holle Rache. 3. Frühlingsstimunen-\ ariationen (Proch). Doncaster. JOHN RICH krdson. Melba To the Editor of THE GRAMOPHONE. Mr. Grant Bartlett's rather ludicrous attack on collectors in general and Melba in particular makes one wonder just how much or how little he has heard, also who the pre -Caruso " decrepits " are that he has in mind as many of the artistes of the era are still with us! It was a curious coincidence that in the same issue of THE GRAMOPHONE Melba's voice should have rece;ed a tributo for its beauty-her rendering of Clair de Lune! Has Mr. Bartlett ever hear 1 her record of Chant Venitien? Or of the mad scene from " Hamlet "? Or her shake at the end of Pastorale? Or-leavi Ig the despised tin trumpet era be ndsome of her electrical records taken at her farewell, in particular the second part of the Salce and the Ave Maria? Do they convey nothing more than monotony to him? While her acting abilities are generally admitted to have been very limited, she was nevertheless able to convey much more with her voice than many other artists more gifted histrionically. Speaking of Grace Moore's singing of excerpts from La Boh?nee. a critic recently remarked that good though it was it was not the flow of molten gold one associated with Melba. To many of us, hether we heard her in person or through the medium of the gramophone, Melba's voice will remain a thing of fragile beauty, the peculiar loveliness of which is not likely- to be met with again in our time. Ilampstead. DUDLEY SHOLTE. The Golden Age To the Editor of THE GRAMOPHONE. Allow me to express through your columns a few words in reply to W. Grant Bartlett. Never have I read such rubbish as the latter part of his article-or rather letter. It is not a matter of opinion as to whether modern voices are as good as the ones of thirty or forty years ago, it is a matter of fact. I should be g ad if Mr. Bartlett could find to -day any voices (I speak of voices purely and simply, that is voice production) to compare with the galaxy of the Golden Age. There are one or two exceptions undoubtedly-rettcberg, Chaliapine, Eva Turner, and one or two others but how many singers of to -clay will be in full possession of their powers at sixty and sixty-five years of age? Very few-simply because they do not produce the voice properly. All they seem to aim for is power. power, power. " Never mind the perfect quality, if I can sing louder than anyone else." And then to assist them in their campaign, the microphone comes along, and the volwne knobs are turned higher and higher! Si ith what result?-we have " big " voices like Melchior, Tibbett, Gigli, and that whole galaxy of singers one hears in most of the opera houses of Europe, but no real quality as De Luca, Battistini, Amato, Bonci, De Lucia, De Reszke, Destinn, Patti, Arnoldson, Melba, Scotti, and many others of this calibre used to give us, and still could do so at an age when the modern singer will be retired and " teaching "- unfortunate pupils! As to the merits of acoustic and electrical reproduction and recording, to the discerning critic there is only one answer- acoustic. That terrible steely luality one hears on most modern 3. ocal records is not natural. Listen to a record of Gigli and compare it with one of Caruso's 1904 or 1905 records. In the latter is the pure natural voice, the only drawback being the heavy surface noise. I ha, e yet to hear Gigli sing anything that can compare with the perfection of Caruso's rendering of anything lie touched. Gigli's mezzo, voice is in complete control, but absolutely toneless. May I then end this perhaps somewhat disjointed letter with a most appropriate quotation : " Phases and vogues there must always be in which e\ en the leaders of opinion will seem unanimous for the moment. All these come to the test of time. Slowly but surely the real artist finds his rightful place in the ong role of names. when the exaggerations and enthusiasms of each generation fall into their true l erspective." I would make it clear that the above words are intended to show that modern conditions are not conducive to the production of great singers and true artists, as speed (in training as in everything else) and " quantity " rather than " Ip a ity " are the goals aimed for, with the result that the present-day singers cannot compare with those who took years o' or their training, and then never forced the voice under any circ*mstances. How else could Melba have sung as she did at sixty-five, or Battistini at seventy-four? Cheshire. G. C. SIMPsoN. Advance Echo To the Editor of THE GRAMOPHONE. During all these months of bewildered discussion of that annoy ing phenomenon. " advance echo." I have been wondering why our old friend Captain Barnett husnot advanced to the fore and nonchalantly set us right. Since he apparently does not mean to do so, I am taking the liberty of quoting from an

62 354 The GRAMOPHONE Jar+ºnary 1936 article contributed by him to the February 1928 issue of the now defunct Phonograph Monthly Review: ECHO "On sonic records when the needle goes over the groove immediately preceding the first music groove there will be heard a faint ghost of the opening notes. One might reasonably suspect this to be caused by a deformation of the groove wall under t he action of the recording needle if it were not for the fact that one sometimes hears an echo of the closing c lords of a piece after the music is finished. Now the groove in which this fo e echo occurs was not cut when the needle was recording the echo note and, not being cut, most certainly it had no wall capable of distortion. therefore it is amply clear that one must look to some other cause other titan the action of the recording needle for production of t his defect. It is indeed a most serious defect not, so much on account of the ghost noises themselves which are of' little importance. but because if this imperfection occurs on the playing grooves it is certain that the same principle in action must be spoiling the music in those grooves where the music is engraved. " By a careful series of experiments Mr. Toni Bough has traced the trouble to its source and he found it where I should never have expected to come across it. After recording the wax (or soap) disc is dusted and cleaned by a rotary brush. If the hairs of the brush are too stiff or if the brushing has been too thorough then echo will be found on the recorcs, the fault having originated by actual transference of vibrations from groove to groove through the centrifugally stiffened hairs on the brush. 1 he saute trouble may be set up even in cleaning the metal roasters or pressers made from the wax mould. Of course, records made from moulds so carefully (?) treated cannot contain very pure sounds and should be avoided." So it appears that t be manufacturers nerd to exercise more care in brushing sued advance echo will be done away with! To Captain 13arnett's remarks I may add that faulty sound -box adjustment may cause such echo effects. 1 had more than tuenty Edison Diamond Discs which showed " advance echo," but having the reproducer adjusted removed the trouble and made the records. which I had t nought worn out, appear as good as new. Mentioning Edison records reminds me to express my hearty approval of the remarks of.messrs. Hurst and Welch. Such diatribes as theirs against the senselessly blaring, overamplifie I records of to -day are badly needed. A friend of mine once wrote to me about being visited by the charming comedi- enne Aileen St anlev. He had an Edison instrument and, p acing one of her records upon it, asked her to sing in comparison with the reproduction. The experience of his family, listening at the other end of the room, was the same as t hat of five million other hearers of " Tone Tests " in concert halls : the talking machine simulate i Miss Stanley's voice so perfectly they were never able to tell which was singing, the lady or the Edison! On one occasion a friend of mine who was a recording artist decided to see if a tone test could be given with another make of instrument-an elaborate electrical machine costing seventy-five pounds. We tried adjusting it in every conceivable way but never could get it to sound anything like his genuine voice. There was always a wiry, " boomy " over-antplificat ion which completely took away the similarity between oice and reproduction. Disgustedly. my friend said : " And they call this electrical business progress! Why. if I had made an acoustic Edison record you could have stood six feet away from me and the machine and reeve been able to tell which was which! " I agree, too, with Mr. Welch that electrically recorded Edison records contain unnatural resonances which would prevent their being used successfully in Tone Test comparisons.... But I'd best drop this Edison subject altogether. I long since learned that nothing so infuriates die-hard " electrical " fans as having the name " Edison " thrown up in their faces! EDI5ONITE. An English Gesture To the Editor of THE GRAMOPHONE. In Novembers " Round and About," 1W. R. A. quotes a correspondent's remarks about Furtwiingler holding up a score for the audience to applaud after a performance. Ile adds : " An Engl'sh conductor might be too shy to make this gesture." Let me relate an incident which happened during the Baehr -Handel Festival at Oxford in May. There was much applause after an excellent performance of Messiah, by the Oxford Bach Choir and the Oxford Orchestral Society. right through, without cuts and with Handel's original orchestration. Dr. Thomas A'mstrong left the platform to return u ith the full score. holding it aloft to indicate where credit was due. Then both singers and players joined with the audience in paying tribute to a great, composer. Cheltenham. J. BROOK. Quality Reproduction To the Editor of THE GRAMOPHONE. In a letter last month \Ii'. G. N. Sharp stated a fact. Modern records in conjunction with a good gramophoneand it must be a first-class one-do sound every bit as good as a performance in a concert hall. This statement would have been a daring one to make a year ago, but during the last twelve months some magnificent recordings have been released. As examples from many I give Prince Igor Choral Dances (LX369-70), the Overtures to Beatrice and Benedict (LX371) and The Picaresque Comedy (LX394), and Tchaikovsky's Fifth Symphony (H.M.V. 1) ). It may be noticed that these are all concerned with good, hefy-sized orchest ras and. in the Prince Igor. a chorus as well. The results in every case are excellent, both as regards the balance of the large orchestral forces employed and the tone of the indix idual instruments. In this advance records of the London Philharmonic Orchestra under Sir Thomas Beecham and Sir Hamilton Harty have been well to the fore. This orchestra I claim to be the equal of any in the world when directed by either of these conductors, and both of them, but especially the latter, are authorities upon the interpretation of Berlioz. Now, after this roundabout beginning. I have reached my point. Be lioz, after years of neglect. is undergoing a revival similar in many ways to that of Rossini. In Glasgow his masterpiece, The Trojans, was produced by amateurs for the first time in this country last March. A corning concert organised by the B.B.C. is denoted to two major works. the Symphonie Funébre and the Messe des Marts, both conducted by Sir Hamilton Ilarty. Even in the monthly gramophone lists soinet hing of this revival may he seen in the two overtures, the Symphonie Fantastique and the Funeral March for " Hamlet,' all issued by Columbia. I am positive there is as large a public for the longer works of Berlioz as there is for Delius, Purcell, and Sibelius. who all have society issues, and much modern music which finds its way into Collectors' Lists and Connoisseur Catalogues. Let us have the Overtures to Les Franc.Iuges and Ring Lear, the Symphonic Funebre whici so impressed Wagner. Romeo et Juliette. Harold in Italy (why do our viola players complain of a slender repertoire and never play this work?). It might be too much to expect the Messe des alíorts, L'Enfance du CI gist. or Les Troyer's. but t here is a wealth of fine music in all of them and even excerpts would be welcome, provided the recording was of the saute standard as the Prince Igor Choral Dances. Berlioz's music is the music of a poet. Even nowadays it still strikes one through its originality. The trouble is that, apart from the Symphonie Fantastique and some short pieces, very little of this intensely personal and exciting music is ever performed. The gramophone is the only adequate method of arriving at a proper understanding of it. Berwickshire. D. M. COOKSON.

63 January 1936 The GRAMOPHONE 355 The " Gentleman " Composer To the Editor of THE GRAMOPHONE. Evidently there is a demand for more Mendelssohn. Mr. Hugh Liversidge's appeal in your November number was matched by a similar appeal by Mr. Filson Young in the Radio Times. Unfortunately. to both appeals was attached the same deplorable portrait of the composer, from which his reputation has suffered more than from any defect in his music. whether supposed or actual. That portrait-likeness it cannot be!-is the very embodiment of priggishness, smugness, and prim cornplacerrcy. It says unmistakably to every beholder : " Be good enough to kick me. for no man possessing such a face as this could deserve anything e se at your hands, or (to speak more correctly) at your feet." Mendelssohn was not a bit like that, if one may judge from other portraits, or from contemporary descriptions. \\'here is the alert inte ligence, the attractive force, which he is known to have possessed? Where a suggestion of the practical joker, who loved to travesty his friends on the piano, and slid down the banisters after conducting iilijah? I venture to claim that 'tlendelssohn's music has never ceased to be popular w it h the hulk of discerning musical opinion in this country. Mr. Liversidge recalls the fact that the Mendelssohn Prom. two years ago filled the Queen's J lall. He might have added that. for two years in succession. the Elijah in its pageant form has crowded the Albert Hall night after night : and that the prolonged run of the Midsummer,Vights Dream in Regent's Park last summer owed much of its attractive charm to t he Mendelssohn music. No, the partial eclipse of the great Felix is due to two principal causes : (i) the perversity of some critics, and (ii) the negligence of all conductors. (i) Some critics systematically belittle the composer. Not, of course, men like 2. N. and who really know their business. but certain lesser lights, chiefly young raen, not long out of their cradles, who consider it essential to their reputations to disparage nearly everything which dates from the Victorian age. For instance, one of these clever young men, discussing the Italian Symphony over the wireless some time ago, had the audacity to describe it as " not the highest art." As though F. M. B. did not, possess more art in his little finger than fifty of these young gentlemen in t heir entire bodies! In a sense. \fendelssohn was too artistic, too tied and bound to the rules and regulations of art. And one reason for this, was that he happened to he that rarity among g eat composers a gentleman-by the accident of birth. by nature, and by upbringing. Of what other great composer could as much be said, except perhaps-per/taps of Chopin? The fact was not an unmixed blessing to him as musician ; for while it gave him a somewhat wider outlook on life -he had all sorts of interests beside music-it imposed upon his art a restraint. a fastidiousness, and a disinclination to let himself go. of which such rough old giants as Handel. Beethoven and Braluns knew nothing. But (ii) all conductors, without exception, agree in giving us too little Mendelssoltrt: or rather. they give us a handful of his works, almost ad nauscanr, and the rest of them not at all. Take the Concert Overtures. The M. N.D., Hebrides, and Ruy lilas, are heard again and again ; but the equally fine Melusina, and the Calm Sea and Prosperous Voyage, scarcely at all. Elijah is regularly performed (its drawing power is needed financially ) : but what of St. Paul. the Hymn ofpraise, and. above all, the choral Psalms? Sorne conductors have recently discovered the Italian Symphony, but leave the far finer Scold Symphony on the shelf. The Violin Concerto is always with us (violinists see to that). but the Piano Concertos, and the other brilliant works for piano and orchestra. might as well never have been written. And what of the wealth of chamber music-trios, quartets. sextet and octet? \\ hat is true of conductors is equally true of gramophone companies. and (to a less extent) of the C. The promised performance of the First N'alpurgis Nigit on January 29th by the C. s tould he a treat (thank you, Dr. Boult!). Columbia.gave its last month two delightful quartet movements, but why not fur entire quartet? Each of the great compose s has his special contribution to the world's happiness, and that of Mendelssohn is by no means the least valuable. Music so optimistic, so tuneful and varied. so brilliant and yet so sincere. should be welcome at till times, but especially in this disheartened and war -stricken age. H. H. E. Sanderstead, Surrey. A Protest To the Editor of THE GRAMOPHONE. My attention has been caught by the letter signed William Brown in your December issue. 1 (lo not know whethe this correspondent is correct in his statement of the ages of those great pianists, Horowitz and Solomon. but in my case he has certainly overshot the mark very, considerably. You must pardon my feminine sensitiveness on this point. Trt e, there are only three ages for an artist, who is either tentative, mature or passé : but it is the tragedy of our sex that, as women, we do not like to be considered any of these. London, N.\\.3. EILEEN JOYCE. Reminiscences To the Editor of THE GRAMOPHONE. Mr. Hurst, who does such exce lent work with your " Col ectors' Corner." has suggested to me that many of your readers would be interested in some of my reminiscences of great operatic artists of bygone days. My memories of opera extend over rather more than sixty years, so the subject is a ve -v large one and in the limited space 1 can hope for in your columns I think I must confine myself to impressions that 1 received from a few of the greatest of these artists. 1 would first and foremost place that incomparable artist Jean de Reszke. It was my privilege to hear him as far back as 1875 in the title role of Don Giovanni. Iie then sang is a baritone, and I well remember his beautiful voice and his After his retirement to study as a tenor handsome presence. I heard him very often in nearly all his great successes. It is no exaggeration to describe him as the ideal artist. It seemed impossible to find in him anything to criticise. His voice had a timbre so beautiful t tat the very listening to it tilled the heart with emotion and the eyes with tears. I have seen it stated that his voice was lacking in power. but this was not so, for his ringing high notes thrilled me hundreds of times, althot gh the voice had not the stupendous trumpetlike quality of the great Tamagno. But his control of it was just perfect, as was also his taste and refinement in the use of it. And to add to these great gifts he had a beautiful diction, histrionic ability that enabled him to identify himself completely wit h every character he portrayec. a very fine physique, and perfect taste in the art of make-up and costume. Possib y Tristan, as he sang and played it. stands first in my treasured memories. but even that seems doubtful to one who remembers perfectly his Horneo, his Lohengrin, his \Va titer, and his Siegfried. \\'hat a galaxy of wonderful artists Jean tie Reszke had in those days as his companions on the opera stage. His brother, Edouard, w ith a voice of enormous sonority and yet of a beautiful quality. a ovable I+rere Laurent. a genial Mephis- topheles. an impressive King :lark, and a Hans Sachs the embodiment of human sympathy. Pol Planeon. another p tysical'y fine bass with a huge voice and a technique so complete that I once heard him in an old opera. I think it was I.e Chalet by Adam, sing voca gymnastics such as scales and shaves as well as any accomplished coloratura soprano. Then that great singer and magnificent actor Victor Maitre', equally great in tragedy or comedy, in Mozart or Wagner. who gave one thrills in his Iago as moving as Henry Irving did in The Bells. I had the privilege of his friendship for a few years before his Cleat J. and one day he took me by the

64 356 The GRAMOPHONE January 1936 arm and sang to me Tosti's Ninon so that I could see how he produced tone and diction with h's lips. He had a charming personality and, incidental y, was an excellent painter in oils. Further back in the long, long past the names of many great opera singers that I heard occur to me. That great singer Titiens with her noble stage presence and g orious voice, that remarkably beautiful woman Christine Nilsson with a timbre in her voice something like that in Jean de Reszke's, and whose Marguerite was y the most beautiful I have ever seen, Minnie Hank, the perfect Carmen. and Fancelli, the Italian tenor, with a voice of gold and a marve Ions top C in Salve dinwra. He dearly loved pouring out his vocal efforts to the gallery gods, and on one occasion I saw Nilsson drag him away from the footlights by his cloak so that he should properly make love to her in the Garden Scene in Faust. A great singer but a poor actor. Great clays of singing, t lose! It is a trag.c misfortune that electrical recording was not invented generations earlier so that opera -lovers of to -day might know something more of what old opera -goers like myself mean when we talk about " The Golden Age of Opera." Wimbledon, S.\V.19. PERCY A. BULL. Hansel and Gretel To the Editor of THE GRAMOPHONE. In the Editorial of the current issue of THE GRAMOPHONE you enquire if any reader can supply the names of the singers who appeared in the original London production of Humperdinck's Hansel and Gretel. I think I am right in stating that Jeanne Donate was the Gretel. Marie Elba the Hansel, Edith 3lillcr the 1Vitch, Charles Copland the Peter, while the smaller parts were represented by Jessie Huddleston, Julia Lennox and Marie du Bedat. Arditi was the conductor and the year In the correspondence page of your December issue I notice that Mr. William Michael White complains of the lack of records obtainable in this country by modern Italian sopranos. I do not think this complaint is quite justified, since the recording companies have, from time to time during the last few years, issued records by what are presumably considered to be the most distinguished of present-day Italian song -birds. Relying entirely on memory, the names of Bianca Scacciati, Rosetta Pampanini, Iva Pacetti and Gina Cigna occur to me. All four of these ladies have had records issued over here, and we have also had opportunities of hearing their actual performances at Covent Garden. With the possible exception of Pampanini during her first season here, none of these singers seemed to justify transplantation from her native soil. They all suffered from tremolo to a degree which was most distressing, and one really felt that the vocal art of Italy must be in a very low state if these were the best exponents to be found. I do, however, support Mr. 11 bite in his plea for records by Claudia Muzio, a fine singer who belongs to the pre-war generation of sopranos, having made her debut in London in She has been heard at Covent Garden as,\lanon, Mimi, De rdemona, and Margherita in Mefistofele. Muzio has recently made some records for the Italian Columbia company which can be obtained here by special order. I have some of her American Edison records which reveal a glorious dramatic voice of great range and flexibility and a particularly exquisite mezza voce. If the recording companies do, however, want to give us some first-class operatic soprano records, they need not go to Italy or anywhere else on the Continent. All they need do is to go to Islington. There, at Sadler's Wells Theatre. our true British Opera House, they will find Miss.Joan Cross singing throughout the season a variety of roles which would probably perturb any ordinary international prima donna. But then Miss Cross is not an ordinary prima donna, for in addition to possessing a lyr'c soprano oice of the loveliest quality, she has a brain, aid what is more, is not afraid to use it. This is apparent in the intelligence and care she brings to all her parts as well as in her sure sense of style, whether she be interpreting Mozart, Puccini, Wagner, Verdi or Rimsky- Korsakov. H.M.V. is not quite in ignorance of the existence of this singer, for it has included a few snippets sung by Miss Cross in two records of surprising banality, dealing with the stories of films starring a charming, but to my mind over -praised, American soprano. The only things to be said in defence of these two records are that Miss Cross sings in them and that her voice reproduces excellently. At least, they Is het our appetites for more " full length " recordings by this distinguished artist. Chelsea, S.W.3. NEVILLE \V ALLIS. Gillingham (Kent) Gramophone Society On November 25th Mr. E. S. Kerslake gave an interesting recital of vocal, instrumental and orchestral recordings. H.M.V. DB2:375-6 (Simon Barer's new records of Liszt's Rapsodie espaghole recently recommended by John F. Porte in these pages) earned immediate approval, aid it was agreed that these are two of the most brilliant piano records yet issued. The meeting on December 9th took the form of an impromptu recital, each member contributing an appropriate Christmas record. After the interval. Mr. \V. W. Johnson presented his gramophone competition-a short story with certain omissions, the omissions being the titles of well -know] recordings. Fragments from the records were played without comment, and the company invited to suggest the titles, thus completing the story. Much amusem*nt was caused when the solution was revealed. Liverpool and District Gramophone Society Excerpts from the Paris Opera recording of Faust formed the Society's programme for November 8th. The performance is of a high standard throughout. and the inclusion of the Ballet music and the less -known \\-alpurgis Night scene give completeness to a very satisfying version of the opera. On November 18th Dr. Clifford Marshall gave a vastly entertaining talk on " Humour in Music." After first " preparing " the audience by relating a number of funny stories with musical connections, Dr. Marshall suggested that this type of music might be arranged in three sections : (a) the ordinary humorous song ; (b) realistic mu - e..e. representative of extraneous sounds or events; and (c) orchestral music in which one or more of the instruments are given parts which produce a comical effect-in this case the composer is having his little joke at the expense of the performer or the audience, and the humour is of a more subtle character. Section (a) was (sell illustrated by Messrs. 31. Thompson and A. Rowlands, whose songs included " Five Eyes," " Yarmouth Fair," " The Ninepermy Fidil." etc. Dr. Marshall himself illustrated section (b) with a delightful group of pianoforte solos (e.g., " Golliwog's Cake Walk," " Firefi'es "). and as other instances of this type mentioned the bleating of sheep in " Don Quixote." the pompous introduction followed by the simple tune in DOlmanyi's " Nursery Suite." Section (c) was represented by the crashing chord in Haydn's " Surprise " Symphony, the double bass part in the third movement of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, the drum part in the scherzo of the Choral Symphony, and so on. The final vocal duet, " Old Mother I I ubbard " (Hely- Hutchinson). although not orchestral, should also come in this last category, being a setting of the old nursery rhyme in the style of Handel. The combination of childish words and oratorio -like arrangement was irresistible and brought down the house.

65 January 1936 The GRAMOPHONE xvrt records for the Lover of Chamber Music BACH Sonata No. 1 in G major, for 'Cello and Piano. Played by John Barbirolli and Ethel Bartlett. 2 records, Sonata in Ey major for Piano and Flute. Played by Kathleen Long and René le Roy, three sides, and HONEGGER. " Danse de la Chévre," Flute solo. 2 records, Concerto in F minor for piano and strings, and " Blessed Jesu, here we stand." (Chorale, arranged for piano by Rummel.) Piano, Ethel Bartlett. 2 records, ARNOLD BAX Oboe Quintet. Played by Leon Goossens (Oboe) and the International String Quartet (André Mangeot, Boris Pecker, Frank Howard and Herbert Withers). 2 records, 76-7 String Quartet in G major. Played by the Marie Wilson String Quartet (Marie Wilson, Gwendolen Higham, Anne Wolfe and Phyllis Hasluck). 3 records, Sonata for Two Pianos, and II A RDA N G E R. Played by Ethel Bartlett and Rae Robertson. 3 records, BOCCHERINI String Quartet in E. Played by the Poltronieri String Quartet of Milan. 2 records, 92-3 BRAHMS Trio for Pianoforte, Violin and Horn in Eh,. Op. 40. Played by York Bowen, Spencer Dyke and Aubrey Brain. 4 records, 65-8 Pianoforte Quartet in C minor, Op. 60. Played by Olive Bloom (piano), Spencer Dyke (violin), Bernard Shore (viola) and B. Patterson Parker ('cello). 4 records, String Sextet in G major, Op. 36, played by the Spencer Dyke Quartet with James Lockyer and Edward Robinson. 4 records, Trio in C minor, Op Played by the Pirani Trio (Leila Pirani, violin ; Charles Hambourg, 'cello ; Max Pirani, piano). 3 records, CORELLI Concerto for Christmas Night. Played by the N.G.S. Chamber Orchestra, conducted by John Barbirolli (leader, André hlangeot.) Three sides, 69A BACH Schafe kónnen sicher Weiden. Sung by Martha Anistad (Soprano) with Bernard Ord (Harpsichord), Edward Walker and Evelyn Claye (Flutes). One side 69B DEBUSSY Deux Danses for Piano and Strings. Played by Ethel Bartlett (Piano) and the N.G.S. Chamber Orchestra, conducted by John Barbirolli (leader, André Mangeot). Three sides and Pour invoquer Pan, dieu du vent d'été, and Pour remercicr la pluie au matin from Six Epigraphes Antiques, duets for one piano. Played by Ethel Bartlett and Rae Robertson. One side, Sonata for Violin and Piano (1917). Played by André Mangeot and Lyell Barbour, three sides, and Les sons et les parfums tournent dans l'air du soir, from Preludes Set 1, played by Lyell Barbour. 2 records, HANDEL Sonata No. 3 in G major for Flute and Piano. Played by René le Roy and Kathleen Long. 1 record, 137 HAYDN String Quartet in Bb major (The Sunrise), Op. 76, No. 4, played by the International String Quartet. 3 records, Pianoforte Sonata in C minor, three sides, and BAMEAtt. Variations in A minor, one side. Played by Kathleen Long. 2 records, String Quartet in E,, Op. 76, No. 6, five sides, and PURCELL. Four-part Fantasia No. 4 in C minor, one side. Played by the International String Quartet (Andre Mangeot, Albert Voorsanger, Eric Bray and Jack Shine - bourne). 3 records, PAUL JUON Chamber Symphony, Op. 27. Played by the New Chamber Orchestra, conducted by Charles Kreshover. 3 records, MATTHEW LOCKE String Quartet No. 6. Played by the International String Quartet. 1 record, 143 MOZART Quartet in D major (K285) for Flute, Violin', Viola and 'Cello, played by René le Roy, André Mangeot, Frank Howard and Herbert Withers. 2 records, Quintet in Et, major, for Piano, Oboe, Clarinet, Horn and Bassoon. Played by Kathleen Long, Léon Goossens, Frederick Thurston, Aubrey Brain and J. Alexandra. 3 records, Piano Sonata in D major (K576). Three sides ; and GOTTLIEB NIUFPAT. (a) Minuet, (b) Air, from Suite in Bb ; and ERA NCOIS COUPERIN "Le Tic-Toc- Cloc " ou " Les Maillotins." One side. Played by Kathleen Long. 2 records, String Trio in G major, No. 5 (K.564), Played by the Budapest Trio (Nicholas Roth, violin ; Georges Roth, 'cello ; and Lyell Barbour, piano). 2 records, Trio in E flat major, No. 7 (K498). Played by Rebecca Clarke, viola ; Frederick Thurston, clarinet ; Kathleen Long, piano. 2 records, VIVALDI Sonate en Concert, No. 5 in E minor for Violoncello and Strings (arranged Vincent d'indy). Played by Georges Pitsch and String Quartet, three sides, and Three Pieces (arranged Ethel Bartlett) : (a) " Golden Slumbers," (b) " An Ancient Lullaby," (c) " My Love's an Arbutus." Played by John Barbirolli ('cello) and Ethel Bartlett (piano), one side. 2 records, PETER WARLOCK " The Curlew" (W. B. Yeats). John Armstrong, R. Murchie, T. Mac- Donagh, and International String Quartet. Conducted by Constant Lambert. 3 records WOLF Italian Serenade. Played by the International Quartet (Mangeot, Voorsanger, Bray and Shinebourne). 1 record, 150 offered in the April issue (page 432), if our readers will send us a list of records that they will buy if and AS when we can supply them, we on our side will allow 33; per cent. discount on all orders of Two Pounds and over, i.e., ten records at four shillings instead of six shillings each. All records are twelve -inch electrically recorded. Just write to the Secretary and say what records you require, enclosing necessary remittance. National loa, Son,oho Square, Societ y Lond

66 zvm The GRAMOPHONE January 1936 The " Gramophone " Exchange & Mart RATES-Advertisem*nts are accepted for this section at the rate of twopence per word with a minimum charge of two shillings. The advertiser's name and address will be charged for, and single letters and single figures will be counted as words. Compound words will be counted as two words. Ml advertisem*nts must he prepaid in the form of postal orders or cheques addressed to The Advertisem*nt Manager, THE GRAMOPHONE, 10A, Soho Square, London, W.1. Should the advertiser desire his announcement to be addressed to a box number, C(o THE GRAMOPHONE. IOA. Soho Square, W.1 (which address-six words-must, of course, be paid for at the ordinary rate of twopence per word), 6d. extra for the forwarding of replies must be sent. FOR SALE ALBUM of twelve 10 -inch H.M.V. records, " What the Stars fo etell," unused. Cost 30s. post free for 20s.-Box No. 6927, c/o THE GRAMOPHONE, IOA, SOHO SQUARE, LONDON, W.I. EXPERT SENIOR with A.C. Electric Motor. 18.-Box No. 5359, C/O THE GRAMOPHONE, IOA, SOHO SQUIRE, LONDON. W.I. " THE GRAMOPHONE " Volumes I to XII complete; 144 numbers, I unbound, no indices. Offers.-BROOKE, 41, LEEDS ROAD, WAKEFIELD. " THE GRAMOPHONE." Unbound. Nov to date. Four 1 numbers missing. What offers?-boshier, GAINSBORorau ROAD, SUDBURY, SUFFOLK. VIRTZ Gramophone with pianoforte -tuned sound -box. Cost 30. Must sell, 6 or offer. -41, BROCKLET PARK. S.E.23. HAT offers? THE GRAMOPHONE, \/ November 1930 to December Iv Clean, unbound, no indices.-travers. "KivoSwIY," HASSOCKS. WANTED BEETHOVEN'S Piano Sonata Op. 90, 109 and 11 I required in good ',condition. Please write stating price.-mack tv, 49c, CLANRICARDE GARDENS, W.2. Society Issues for Members' Library, by Dulwich FIBRE-PLAYED and Forest Hill Gramophone Society.-Write. IIoN. SEC., 48, CHARTHAM ROAD, S.E.25. PRIVATE Collections bought for cash. Good prices given.-write Box No. 98, C/O THE GRAMOPHONE, 101, SOHO SQUARE. LONDON, W.I. IBELIUS SOCIETY Volume II, Sibelius' Sixth Symphony, )elius' LI" Eventyr." STOREY, 27, SILVERDALE ROAD. EA,TBOIRNE. MISCELLANEOUS EXCHANGE : Tamagno " Torte," Lloyd ''Prieslied." Scotti " Otello " and Plancon " Pro peccatis " (Victors). Sale : Pre -Dog, Davidoff, Kamionski, Yuzhin, Gorgorza, Calve (I2in.). Destinn (Odeon), tie Lucia (Fonotipia). Bondi and Zenatello (Columbia). Early Dog. de Lucia (" Lohengrin "), Plunket Greene (" Molly Branigan "), Kirkby Lunn. Rumford, Elwes, Radford, G. & T. celebrities and early Fonotipias wanted.-hurst, HAMIOTA, 1STED RISE. MEOPIIAM. TRADE ADVERTIsem*nTS Rates for this section-threepence per word with a minimum charge of five shillings. The advertisers name and address will be charged for, and single letters and single figures will be counted as words. Compound words will be counted as two words. All advertisem*nts must be prepaid. E\CELLENT Fibre Needles. 2/- packet of 200. Postage Ild. Reduction quantities. Fibre Cutter 1/-. Recent Recordings Reduced Pries.-BROSVN, 71, CoLttoaE Row, BIRMINGHAM. COUPON This coupon must be cut out and attached to any technical enquiry, with a stamped and addressed envelope If a personal answer Is desired. Available until January 31st, "We have never failed to sell anything we have advertised in the Exchange and Mart column." This is an unsolicited tribute from ore of our advertisers which we publish for the benefit of our readers who have any unwanted gramophone material for sale. The Exchange and Mart column is undoubtedly the cheapest and most efficient medium open to the public for the quick disposal of gramophones, records, and accessories. Rates are shown below. Send your advertisem*nt now. RATES-Twopence per word with a minimum charge of two shillings. The advertiser's name and address will be charged for. Box numbers one shilling extra, including the forwarding of replies. TH E We SHOP FOR SLIGHTLY USED RECORDS the best cash and exchange prices. Consult us when selling ; whole libraries or small lots purchased THE DRAWDA HALL BOOKSHOP 33, HIGH STREET, OXFORD Send for ~My Lista of recent additions to our stock. JUSSRfTE Is an exquisite arrangement of Record filing, giving a unique close pack, numerically arranged system of identification -100 Records can be stored in a lateral space of 14 inches-records protected from warp. Special containers for tropical climates. Particulars 59 Clerkenwell cll Road, London, E.C.1 M U R D O C H S CORAL VOLTIVOOD (NON-METALLIC) NEEDLES VOLUME-With an efficient gramop one there is no lack of volum^; for some records a loud needle is too loud, medium being preferable, but there are a few records which are Slat with a soft needle. ECONOMY 1 ND DC RA III LITY.-20 sides (approx.) can be played without needle having any attention, and a needle can be resharpencd 12 times; this gives over 20(1 playings per needle at a cost of 41í1.-compare this with cost of steel. For price of packets and sharpener see December GRAMOPHONE, CORALITE PRODUCTS 50, HAREW'OOD AVENUE, NORTHOLT, MIDDLESEX ORDER FORM THE GRAMOPHONE, loo, Soho Square, London, W.l I enclose my subscription of 145. for one year, post free, beginning with Date I 93 Name (BLOCK CAPITALS) Address number.

67 January 1936 The GRAMOPHONE COVER II BURMESE COLOUR NEEDLES are preferred by many to the triangular variety of fibres, and they are very good indeed for either Soundbox or Pickup. They go in the usual round needle hole. For Sound boxes, per 12,2/-. For Pickups, per 10,2 /-. 'Emerald' brand for Automatic Radiograms,10, 2/-. B.C.N. Sharpener 3/6. MELTROPE Sharpener 5/3. HALL FIBRE NEEDLES-best of their kind. Standard Triangular for Soundboxes, 3/3 per 100. Thick Triangular for Soundboxes, 3/3 per 100. Round -shank for Pickups (Samples 1/-) 3/3 per 50. Alto Cutters 4/9. All post free. Abroad extra. Trade supplied. DAWS CLARKE & CO. 23, The Avenue, Bedford Park, London, W.4 New Records for Old We can allow you for your unwanted records of good music, in good or fibre -played condition, against and in part payment for new records. Such records are available for exchange or sale at half current list prices in our Slightly Used Record Department in Basem*nt. This Department is well worth a visit by customers who desire good records at economical cost. Over 5,000 to select from, ranging from jazz to oratorio, and from ballad to string trio or complete symphony. No list of titles. Callers only. RECORDS PURCHASED FOR CASH Private collections or your surplus records purchased for cash. Top prices given for records of good music in good condition. GRAMOPHONES AND RADIO Acoustic, Electrically Amplified and Radio Gramophones and Radio by all the best-known makers. Your old instrument taken in part payment. Oúr list of reconditioned instruments taken in exchange is well worth a study. It includes many wonderful bargains in Portables, Table-grands,Cabinets, Radio and Radio -Gramophones. Prices from 30/- to f50. ACCESSORIES Motors (spring and electric), Tone Arms, Needles, Automatic Brakes, Interior and Exterior Horns, and every possible Accessory for the gramophone or for cpnstruction purposes, in endless variety. Ask for our Accessory List and consult our Mr. O. H. Russell on all matters appertaining thereto. The Gramophone Exchange Ltd. 121 Shaftesbury Avenue - LONDON, W.C.2 (4 Doors East of Cambridge Circus) Telephone - - TEMPLE BAR 3007 THE BEST GRAMOPHONES are undoubtedly the large external horn machines using fibre needles, the finest of these being the CASCADE The Straight Horn Gramophone The best gramophone at any price REPRODUCTION THE FINEST-PRICES THE LOWEST DEFERRED TERMS TO SUIT PURCHASERS' CONVENIENCE W. J. BOND & SONS Milton Avenue (G), Harlesden, (Behind Harlesden Bakerloo Station) (Willesden 2825) Supplied through Factors only MAINSPRINGS Send for Descriptive List of Sizes George Emmott (Paweone) Ltd. OXENHOPE, Near KEIGHLIY THE AMERICAN MUSIC LOVER A Review for the Modern Home RECORDS RADIO Edited and Published by PETER HUGH REED A monthly magazine, published between the first and the fifth, dealing in an interesting and informative manner with reproduced music. The only magazine of its kind published In America. Write for sample copy, mentioning THE GRAMOPHONE THE AMERICAN MUSIC LOVER 12 East 22nd Street, New York City, New York PARMEKO RECORDING EQUIPMENT for all sound -on -disc recording Now being used by - Broadcasting Stations, Film Studios, Private Record Studios, and for all purposes where firstcláss recording- and instant playback is required. ` w ~; 6f For full particulars please get in touch with PARMEKO LTD., Aylestone Park, LEICESTER

68 COVER III The GRAMOPHONE January 1936 ` t Star' r FORM BY '006 GEORGE FORMBY and His Ukulele His Latest Successes- RIDING IN THE T.T. RACES... THE ISLE OF MAN MR 1932 =- _-._r- azro ma/ IKE HATCH A RECORD THAT WILL CREATE A SENSATION IKE HATCH AND HIS HARLEM STOMPERS SOME OTHER TIME M R 1942 LOVE'S SERENADE IG f Prior not valid in Irish Fu State Prated in England by HRHDEReo$ amp SPALDIIfo Ian., Sylvan Grove, S.E.15, and published by the Proprietors, GRAMOPHOR7 (Pusuoarions) Imp., 8 New Street, Guernsey, Channel Islands.

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